2010年8月8日星期日

Hepatic carcinoma

Hepatic carcinoma

Abstract correcting edit summary
Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) is the mortality rate after gastric cancer, esophageal cancer the third most common cancer, early symptoms and signs, advanced mainly for the liver pain, fatigue, weight loss, jaundice, ascites and other symptoms. Western medicine generally adopted in clinical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicine treatment, but patients with advanced low cure rate for cancer spread, so to achieve early detection of liver cancer, early diagnosis and early treatment. Do liver cancer prevention, adherence to the "water management, food management, anti-hepatitis" The seven-liver cancer prevention policy.

Liver Cancer - Overview
Hepatic carcinoma
Common malignant liver tumors. Early symptoms and signs are not obvious or the lack of specificity, and some had performed liver area pain onset, and some show acute abdominal pain, or metastasis of the first symptoms show. In addition to the clinical manifestations diagnosis, the still need to rely on liver function tests, a special enzyme inspection, in addition to biopsy, the order of AFP (AFP) the highest rate of correct diagnosis. Treated by surgery and treatment of TCM and Western medicine, the survival rate of liver cancer increased. Liver cancer mortality rate was 10.09/10 million people in China. Cancer in men accounts for the first three, women accounted for in the first four. Incidence of primary liver cancer in China than in Europe and the United States 5 to 10 times higher. Recent epidemiological survey in China, early diagnosis, early surgical resection such as significant progress, the importance attached by the international medical community.
Epidemiological survey on the performance of liver cancer in China the highest incidence in the southeast coast, including Qidong County, Jiangsu Province average annual incidence rate of 55.63/10 million, mortality rate 47.93/10 million. Fusui, Guangxi, Guangdong Shunde, Hunan, Sichuan, liver cancer mortality rate ranks first in the cause of death.
Liver cancer incidence around the world to sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, coastal areas have a higher prevalence, Europe, the United States is lower. Greater than 5 / 10 people who are Mozambique, South Africa, Nigeria, Singapore, Uganda; up to 3.1 ~ 5 / 10, people who are in Japan, Denmark; less than 3 / 10, people who are in Europe, America, Australia, northern India areas. This disease can occur in infants 2 months to 80 years old, up to age of onset is 40 to 49 years. Male hair, male to female ratio of 6:1.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Causes
Hepatic carcinoma
The real cause has not yet fully understood. Present study shows that liver cancer and the following factors.
(A) viral hepatitis in China, chronic viral hepatitis is hepatocellular carcinoma in the main causes of many risk factors. Observed that: Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cancer incidence closely related. Such as the high incidence area in Jiangsu Qidong County, its natural population of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive rate was 24.8%, far higher than 6% of the region. Hepatitis and liver cancer in patients with HBsAg-positive ratio of 2.66%, while only 1.39% were HBsAg negative. Hepatitis B and cirrhosis in patients with liver cancer incidence rate 9-10 times higher than the general population, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy studies have shown that liver cirrhosis tissues around the existence of a HBsAg (70 ~ 88%) . HCC can also be found in HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). Hybridization showed that hepatitis B virus DNA and human liver cells and liver cancer cells with integrated DNA, but DNA integration of the significance of the occurrence of liver cancer to be studied.
(B) cirrhosis
In China, hepatocellular carcinoma in viral cirrhosis mainly based on the place; in western countries, often in alcoholic liver cirrhosis based on the place.
(C) aflatoxin
Animal tests showed that aflatoxin is a strong carcinogen. Guangxi Fusui survey showed that food (corn, peanut, etc.) and mold aflatoxin contamination was positively correlated with the occurrence of liver cancer. In Qidong county corn containing aflatoxin B fed duck, can induce liver cancer.
(D) drinking water
(E) genetic factors
(6) Other
Nitrosamines, organochlorine pesticides, such as dual nitrogen mustard class of cancer-causing factors are worthy of attention. China branch sinensis stimulate the bile duct epithelium, but also can produce bile duct cell carcinoma.
Now generally believed that chronic hepatitis B virus persistent infection is liver cancer and contributes to the carcinogen aflatoxin and other sensitive, in small doses can induce cancer.
Liver cancer - Pathology
Generally divided into: ① block type. More than 5cm in diameter; ② bulky. More than 10cm in diameter, either mono block, block multi-block harmony, accounting for 77.8%. ③ nodules. 5cm in diameter, these nodules can have multiple nodules, accounting for 18.8% ④ dispersed diffuse nodules, accounting for 1.45%. ⑤ small cancer type. Refers to a single nodule less than 3cm, accounting for 1.93%. Histological type most common type of liver cells, about 90%; bile duct cell-type rare; mixed that these two types exist, is even more rare.
Liver cancer - histological type
Hepatic carcinoma
Liver cancer can occur by tissue into hepatocellular carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma, mixed hepatocellular three categories.
(1) hepatocellular carcinoma: cancer cells originated from hepatocytes. Differentiation is better, similar to liver cancer cells were poorly differentiated cancer cells heteromorphism, polygon, rich in cytoplasm, granular, eosinophilic stained clear, and sometimes shows a small drop of bile, a large deeply stained nuclei, showing that multiple nuclei and cells arranged in cords or nests, during which blood Doufeng Fu, no other interstitial. The most common type, accounting for 80% of liver cancer to 90%.
(2) bile duct carcinoma: originated in intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells. Its organizational structure, or more simply as adenocarcinoma cancer. Cells small, clear and transparent cytoplasm, the cytoplasm of non-bile, the formation of large and small glandular, stromal little more than the sinusoid. This relatively rare type.
(3) mixed type of liver cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma existing structure there cholangiocarcinoma. The least common type. In addition, in recent years has found that some rare types of cancer, such as clear cell type, giant cell type, hard type, fiber-like layer-type. These types of liver cancer prognosis are good.
Liver cancer - the naked eye typing
Hepatic carcinoma
The naked eye can be divided into 3 types:
(1) massive type: cancer was a large block, but was more than a single block can block, or block the majority of nodules integration; mass more than 5cm in diameter, such as greater than 10cm will be bulky. Aikuai soft texture, the center often hemorrhage and necrosis, cancer often scattered around the satellite-like nodules. The more common type in right liver lobe, accounting for more than 78% of liver cancer, suitable for chemoembolization, satellite lesions has not yet appeared early liver cancer may consider surgery.
(2) Multi-nodular: A majority is dispersed in the right lobe of liver nodules and liver left lobe in diameter from a few millimeters to a few centimeters to 3 ~ 5cm for multiple. Nodules and the surrounding boundaries unclear, nodules under the capsule surface elevation to the liver to the uneven surface. This type accounts for about 20%, due to more nodes, surgery is not easy to eradicate, to do a hepatic artery embolization.
(3) diffuse: for the most size from rice to soybean nodules dispersed in the whole liver, pale, hard, hard to the naked eye with the proliferation of fake leafed. This type is less common, accounting for less than 2%, not suitable for chemotherapy, surgery can be considered such as hepatic artery embolization.
Liver cancer - metastasis means
Transfer means:
(1) blood transfer, the earliest and most common; mainly through blood circulation, the first transfer in the liver, causing multiple metastases. Portal vein tumor thrombus may be occurring. Extrahepatic metastasis, the main switch to the lung, followed by the adrenal gland, bone, kidney and brain.
(2) lymphatic metastasis in the liver portal lymph nodes, lymphatic metastasis to the liver and nearby lymph nodes, distant metastasis to supraclavicular lymph nodes.
(3) cultivation, and a few can cause abdominal or pelvic metastasis.
Liver cancer - clinical manifestations
Hepatic carcinoma
Hiding the disease onset, early lack of typical symptoms. Some early cases, only the AFP test was positive and asymptomatic, and signs, called sub-clinical liver cancer. Advanced liver cancer symptoms are as follows:
1. Liver pain, often isolated and persistent swelling and pain or dull pain, liver pain, liver capsule due to rapid growth of the tumor was caused by traction. If violations of diaphragm disease, pain may involve the right shoulder. When the liver surface nodules rupture and necrosis of cancer tissue and blood into the abdominal cavity, it can suddenly pain, until the whole abdomen from the liver area; produced the performance of acute abdomen, such as hemorrhage, can cause shock and syncope.
2. Hepatomegaly liver enlargement was progressive, hard texture, surface uneven, with nodules, or massive, blunt edge instead of neat, often with different degrees of tenderness. Prominent in the liver under the arch or xiphoid Youlei under, the upper abdomen can present as partial or full uplift, such as cancer in the diaphragm, is mainly for the diaphragm may from time to raise and lower edge of the liver enlargement. Nodules under the costal arch at the most vulnerable to touch. Sometimes vascular tumor suppression, can be heard in the appropriate abdominal area hair-like noise.
3. Jaundice occurs late, usually due to liver cell damage or oppression or violation of due Aikuai near hilar bile duct, or because of loss caused by cancer or blood clots caused by biliary obstruction.
4. Signs of liver cirrhosis associated with portal hypertension may have splenomegaly, ascites, venous collateral circulation, such as performance. Ascites rapidly increased, the general was transudate. (Candidates should keep in mind is the leakage of fluid or more effusion, may be appropriate exudate and transudate review identifying the knowledge points). Have bloody ascites, multiple violations of the liver capsule due to cancer or to cause intra-abdominal rupture.
5. Systemic cancer had progressive weight loss performance, loss of appetite, fever, fatigue, malnutrition and cachexia, a small number of liver cancer, could have a special performance of the body, known as paraneoplastic syndrome. To spontaneous hypoglycemia, polycythemia more common, other rare high blood lipids, high blood calcium, such as carcinoid syndrome. (What is paraneoplastic syndrome, a very important term to explain).
6. Symptoms of liver metastasis blood metastasis early, most of the transfer to the lung, adrenal gland, bone, chest, brain and other parts of the corresponding induced symptoms, switch to move the right side of chest more common, pleural effusion may have imposed.
Liver - the main symptom
Including: ① liver pain. Was dull or sharp pain, intermittent or persistent, can be extended to the right shoulder or right-back casual. If the cancer renewal of subcapsular hemorrhage or rupture, may have severe abdominal pain, weight were associated with shock. ② gastrointestinal symptoms. Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and some obvious. These symptoms often associated with active hepatitis or cirrhosis of the symptoms not easy to tell. ③ symptoms. Fatigue, weight loss, general weakness, cachexia was late. ④ fever. Some liver cancer patients with fever, with tumor necrosis. ⑤ paraneoplastic syndrome. Some because of ectopic liver tissue, or secretion of B cells secreting insulin-stimulating factor, thus resulting in hypoglycemia. A small number of patients can occur polycythemia, multiple blood circulation due to increase in the EPO. Occasional hypercalcemia.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Signs
Hepatic carcinoma
Showed progressive enlargement of the liver, texture hard, uneven surface can be touched nodules. Uneven edges, upper abdominal cancer may be due to the uplift, such as swelling up, make diaphragmatic elevation. Hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma in tortuous, and sometimes blood vessels in the abdominal wall and the noise can be heard. Jaundice occurs more in late, or because of liver cell necrosis caused by cancer or bile duct pressure. Hilar tumor suppression, can be significantly induced jaundice. For human liver cancer associated with cirrhosis, it may have signs of cirrhosis such as ascites, venous collateral circulation, splenomegaly, portal hypertension can lead to esophageal varices. The lung, bone, brain metastases are appropriate when the symptoms. Transfer can occur bloody pleural effusion.
Liver cancer - clinical staging
Can be in three phases: ① period. Were no clinical symptoms and signs; ② period. Symptoms and signs, and the period of between between those; ③ period. There cachexia, jaundice, ascites or distant metastasis. According to research, from there to the low concentration of AFP-positive, since the period to have symptoms of, a serious condition from period to period, and finally to death from the entire course of roughly 10, respectively, 8,4,2 months shows that the natural course of about 24 months, the average duration of the past that the liver was 3 to 6 months is actually a late course of disease.
Symptoms and signs are important, but early detection of subclinical HCC, mainly depends on high-risk population census or survey. High-risk population over 40 years of age, 5 years history of hepatitis or HBsAg-positive blood. China As a result of the census, found that subclinical liver resection 5-year survival rate as high as 72.9%, the entire liver cancer patients overall 5-year survival rate increased to 20.6%.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Diagnosis
Inspection

Hepatic carcinoma
1. Determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) AFP determine the regular observation of the liver disease, recurrence and prognosis of great value. Criteria: ① AFP> 500μg / L for 4 weeks ② AFP gradually increased from low to no down ③ AFP at 200μg / L or more of the middle level for 8 weeks. AFP by RIA, the positive rate of patients with liver cancer about 70%. When the serum concentration of ≥ 500ng/ml, the liver cancer diagnosis can be established basic. If only the low-rise (50ng/ml) or moderately elevated (200ng/ml ±), should be closely monitored to observe the dynamics; if the continued rise in liver cancer patients should be considered; if dropped, you may as hepatitis. Also measured SGPT helpful in the diagnosis, such as SGPT several times higher than normal, chronic active hepatitis more likely; such as AFP and SGPT separation between the two curves, SGPT increased AFP decline, then the liver is very high. Of course, should be combined with other liver function tests, comprehensive observation and analysis, make the diagnosis.
2. Serum enzymes. GGT  Ⅱ (γ  glutamyl peptide isoenzymes Ⅱ) in primary and metastatic liver cancer were 90%.
3. B-type ultrasonic imaging, can show a tumor more than 2cm in diameter. Applications AFP the same time, should be combined with B-ultrasound to check for cancerous lesions, if the disease, and the nature of the difficult to ascertain who can ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration to check for cancer cells. B-type circular lesions found in the local and shall be differentiated from hemangioma or cyst.
4. X ray computer tomography (CT), can display more than 2cm in diameter tumors, such as the combination of hepatic arteriography (CTA) or hepatic artery injection of iodized oil contrast (1ipoidol-CTA), on the following tumor detection rate of 1cm more than 80% in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma and small liver cancer the best way.
5. X-hepatic angiography, selective celiac artery and hepatic artery angiography can show more than 1cm in diameter, nodules, and the positive rate of 87%, combined with AFP, positive results may be used for diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. DSA (digital subtraction hepatic arteriography) shows the 1.5cm diameter of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Since about 30% of AFP in liver cancer patients can be negative, so in recent years, some new tumor marker studies, including: AIF, γGT isoenzyme, 5 - nucleotide phosphodiesterase, aldolase - A, 1 - antitrypsin and so on. On AFP-positive patients, can also be applied AFP heterogeneity is useful to detect differences as AFP AFP from liver cancer or other pathological conditions arising.

Diagnosis
On the history of middle-aged who have liver disease, especially in male patients with unexplained liver pain, weight loss, progressive hepatomegaly, AFP should be measured and the check. For early diagnosis. Detection of high-risk groups combined with ultrasound imaging examination AFP 1 or 2 times a year is the discovery of the basic measures of early liver cancer. AFP continued to increase but the low concentration of normal transaminases, often sub-clinical liver cancer mainly. The exclusion of active liver disease, pregnancy, embryonic tumors outside, AFP> 500μg / L for 1 month, or AFP> 200μg / L for 8 weeks, can be diagnosed with primary liver cancer. [1]
Liver - differential diagnosis
1. Secondary liver cancer with hepatic mass, slow progression of the disease, mild, AFP test is generally negative, the key to diagnosis and pathological examination of extrahepatic primary cancer to find the evidence.
2. If cirrhosis of liver cirrhosis cases were significantly large, hard of large nodules or liver atrophy and imaging also found lesions, the liver is very likely, repeated checking AFP or AFP heterogeneity, close follow-up condition.
3. Active liver disease liver disease activity was short-term increase of serum AFP, suggesting the possibility of liver cancer, regular follow-up serum AFP and multiple ALT, such as: ① AFP and ALT increased dynamic curve parallel or simultaneous, or ALT continued to increase to normal several times, then the possibility of large active liver disease; ② separation of the two curves, AFP elevated ALT normal or reduced by the high should be more consideration of primary liver cancer.
4. Liver abscess usually obvious clinical manifestations of inflammation, swelling of the liver surface is smooth without nodules, tenderness evident. Elevated white blood cell count. Liver ultrasound examination may not discover the fluid areas. Diagnosis is difficult, it would be to make an ultrasound-guided diagnostic puncture. Can be anti-amebic and anti-bacterial treatment trials.
5. Extrahepatic liver area adjacent retroperitoneal tumor of soft tissue swelling and pain, from the kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas tumor structure, etc. may also be present in the abdominal mass. Ultrasound helps distinguish the location and nature of the tumor, AFP test should be negative, is difficult to distinguish when the diagnosis can only be exploratory.
6. Non-cancerous liver lesions such as hemangioma, polycystic liver, hydatid liver disease and other available radionuclide blood pool CT scan, MRI and ultrasound to help diagnose and sometimes required exploratory laparotomy.
① cancer can not be formed in weak alkaline body;
② cancer only in the formation of acid in the body;
③ If you have cancer, indicating the body is acidic;
④ cancer can only be extended in an acidic body;
⑤ If your body is weak alkaline, cancer can not be extended;
⑥ If you can balance the PH value of your body, let your body into weak alkaline, no matter what you have to have change and be cured of cancer;
⑦ no matter how bad your situation, even if only live 6 months, if you can change your body into weak alkaline PH value, you will not be extended to cancer, will be good;
⑧ Do not worry your family, your mom, dad or anyone else has cancer, as long as your body is alkaline, you will not have to, if you already have, it will change;
⑨ are acidic body fluids of cancer survival, nothing else. If your body is acidic, you will get cancer. If it is weak base, and you will not get cancer. If you already have cancer, as long as you can adjust your body's PH value to weak alkaline, cancer will leave you.
Cancer prevention tips are very simple things as basic food in order to prevent the accumulation of acid waste, because the acidification of the fluid environment is fertile ground for normal cell cancerous, adjust the pH balance of body fluids is an effective way to prevent cancer.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Treatment
1, food therapy for liver cancer
Today, we approach the treatment of cancer by surgery and chemotherapy Why no real cure for cancer, relieve the suffering of patients do, it ultimately was not the real reason is that fluid recovery is acidic, acidic fluid does not change the cancer cell, will not die, This is because of surgery and chemotherapy the cancer metastasis and recurrence of reasons. To the treatment of cancer have to improve their physique from the start, starve cancer cells from the source. Eat more alkaline food, improve their diet is acidic and adding organic nutrients to the body, so as to starve cancer cells in the same time, to restore their immunity.

Second, the pH of common foods
1. Strongly acidic foods: egg yolk, cheese, white sugar or persimmon, mullet roe, dried cod.
2. In the acidic food: ham, bacon, chicken, tuna fish, pork, eel, beef, bread, wheat, butter, horse meat
And so on.
3. Weak acid food: rice, peanut, beer, wine, fried tofu, seaweed, clams, octopus, loach.
4. Weak alkaline food: red beans, carrots, apples, cabbage, onions, tofu.
5. In the basic food: dried radish, beans, carrots, tomatoes, bananas, oranges, pumpkin, strawberry, protein, prunes, lemons, spinach.
6. Strongly alkaline food: Qiama old, grapes, tea, kelp buds, kelp, lemon.
Radical surgery is the primary means of early diagnosis should be to gain an early indication for liver cancer surgery surgery restricted to a leaf or half leaf, without significant jaundice, ascites or metastasis elsewhere. Can do partial resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Large blood vessels in the portal area of liver cancer can be room temperature or cold perfusion of hepatic artery occlusion, removal of the no blood. Those that can not be removed can be used as liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, garnet laser therapy or laser surgery technology, to achieve the elimination of most or all of the purpose of cancer because 90% of liver blood supply from the hepatic artery, hepatic artery ligation or it will embolization can achieve the purpose of palliative care. Hepatic artery chemotherapy infusion or vinyl wrapped mitomycin cellulose capsules made of 225m into the hepatic artery, were trial. The above method, utilization, can improve survival rate. Radiation therapy for advanced liver cancer patients can improve symptoms, reduce the cancer and prolong survival. Chemical treatment than surgery and radiation therapy, and simple on the diffuse type of liver cancer is better, and have significantly impaired renal function and liver injury is to the detriment of patients. Chemotherapy drug 5 - fluorouracil, fluorouracil deoxyuridine (FUDR), thiazolyl for the school, MMC, etc.. Adriamycin combination with other chemotherapy drugs, can increase efficiency. Application of traditional Chinese medicine, up to the purpose of vital essence, and chemotherapy, radiotherapy facilities, reduce side effects and increase efficacy.
Surgery is the best way to meet the levy for the operation: ① diagnosed; estimated liver lesions were confined to a leaf or a half, ② well compensated liver function, prothrombin time is not lower than 50%, no significant jaundice , ascites or distant metastasis, ③ heart lung and kidney function well, can tolerate surgery.
Chemoembolization (TAE) for non-surgical method of choice.

Third, traditional Chinese medicine
Liver cancer is common cancer. Clinical manifestations of early onset captain hidden, no obvious symptoms and signs, often through the AFP test or survey which found. Common symptoms are intermittent or persistent liver area pain, upper abdominal distension slowly, loss of appetite, upper abdominal mass was the sexual swelling, systemic symptoms are weight loss, fever, diarrhea, jaundice, complications of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic coma, rupture of the liver nodules and secondary infection.
The disease more than in Chinese medicine as "the liver product," "Pi qi" and "tympanites", "jaundice" and other areas. Chinese medicine that the emotions of depression, poor air machine, catharsis liver failure, so see above abdominal pain and distension, diminished appetite, greasy fur, wiry pulse; Qi stagnation and blood stasis, bloody blocked, over time, so see the ribs are product, pain discomfort, fatigue and weakness, dark black, thin, greasy fur, purple tongue, thready pulse astringent; spleen health wet, damp depression of heat, toxic heat connotation, so see jaundice, fever, teeth bleed at the nose; heave inflation, yellow and greasy tongue coating and a sense of pulse number of the strings.
The principles of Chinese medicine treatment of liver cancer:
(1) of disease in this: located in the liver disease liver cancer patients, but the righteous large wounds, body fluid Kuihao clearly, under the guidance of BRC, the main application of Yin Fu Zheng, must not blindly attack cancer. If constantly attack cancer, ignoring the man of frail, cancer may have deteriorated.
(2) Combined Internal and External: TCM treatment of cancer must be the overall concept, according to the ancients, "Internal and External governance, its management with a" principle of direct effect of drug cult poison attack on anti-cancer lesions, pain and improve the patients quality of life.
(3) defending side: treatment of chronic diseases persist in defending side, patient must have confidence, not major changes prescription medicine that is also famous view.
(4) attention to the Wei Qi: the treatment of chronic diseases, must pay attention to Stomach. Because "there are students Wei Qi, Wei Qi is no failure."
(5) Intensive Care: The first is the spirit of comfort, improve confidence and initiative to play a patient, actively cooperate with the treatment. Food should be easy to digest, nutritious, Gu protect healthy practices, improve immune function, such as eating more fresh mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum, fresh carp, milk, etc. to enhance disease resistance.
Liver Cancer - Immunotherapy
0 since 80 century, led by the United States and Japan, scientists Maitake (Maitake, also known as Grifola frondosa) has made breakthrough research to cancer patients, especially the liver, bringing a new treatment achieved more satisfactory results. Maitake contains to β-(1-6) combined with the main chain of β-(1-3) combined with the side chain of the glucan and to β-(1-3) combined with the main chain of β-(1-6 ) glucan binding activity for the side chain, experiments prove that the activity of glucan by activation of immune function and inhibit tumor growth; also found that the activity of purified glucan can be markedly only by injection, and Maitake D- fraction (activity of a combination of glucan and protein) can be obtained by oral administration of the desired results. Maitake D-fraction both the chemical structure and composition or molecular weight are different from the mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, mushroom extracts and other similar substances, the biological activity of these same substances are also unmatched.
Animal experiments and clinical trials show that Maitake D-fraction is played by the following aspects to the role of anti-cancer:
1, activation of phagocytic cells, natural killer cells, T cells and other harmful immune cells, induction of leukocyte factors, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and other cytokines.
2, induction of apoptosis.
3, with traditional chemotherapy drugs (mitomycin, Kamosiding, etc.) combined, can increase efficacy, but also reduce side effects during chemotherapy.
4, and immune therapy (interferon-α2b) a synergistic effect.
5, reduce pain in patients with advanced cancer, increase appetite, improve patient quality of life.
U.S. health food company Mike is the first system Maitake authoritative health care products company whose production of "Maitake fine drops" to improve the quality of life of cancer patients can play very good.
Liver cancer - therapy
Zhengzhou Wah Hong Chinese Cancer Institute Hospital, Chinese liver cancer treatment centers in the Chinese medicine treatment of liver cancer has made a major breakthrough, the research projects at the national health administration department and the state in support of medical management, as a Chinese medicine capture the focus of research and promotion of liver cancer by the national health administration and national recognition of the importance of the Chinese Medicine Department, have access to scientific and technological progress awards, won several awards at home and abroad, through the clinical application showed efficacy of home and abroad. Xinhua News Agency, CCTV, "People's Daily", "Health News", "Comment", "Dahe," "Henan Business Daily" has done so many times over 100 media reports, has aroused extensive attention. "Trinity therapy" from the overall concept, the implementation of syndrome differentiation, symptomatic administration, both considered local treatment, but also pay attention to the general situation of the treatment, so traditional Chinese medicine, "Trinity therapy" treatment of cancer is much to accomplish in the medical field, epoch-making significance for human health have made an outstanding contribution. "Trinity therapy" break the traditional single "fire with fire," "is false theory", such as extremely one-sided point of view, even beyond the Western surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy three major limitations of conventional therapy, to achieve three major conventional therapy can not be achieved. The treatment without hospitalization, no pain, no evil attack beverages, tonic not love evil, taken orally and by topical, systemic and local, internal organs and meridian points combined, effective, and in killing cancer cells while increasing the body immunity, remove toxin factor regulating cellular environment, stable gene, repair damaged genes, and no recurrence of cancer prognosis, still critically ill patients with advanced rapidly effective. Therefore, the therapy is the most systematic and comprehensive new anti-cancer Chinese medicine theories, new methods, has made a number of rehabilitation of cancer patients.
Liver cancer drugs commonly used traditional Chinese medicine: GanFuLe oral capsule cinobufotalin Chi capsule norcantharidin Tablets Oral Compound Muji particles GanFuLe God Qi Capsule-specific medicines to treat liver cancer, is Codonopsis, turtle shell ( vinegar), re-building, Atractylodes (fried), Astragalus, Citrus and other precious herbs with effects as the main raw material, the use of modern advanced technology refined from special treatment of liver cancer drugs. GanFuLe capsule in inhibiting cancer cell killing has its unique effect, to kill liver cancer cells for the basic treatment, thorough and effective and quick results. Not only with surgery to prevent postoperative complications, recurrence control symptoms, but also with radiotherapy and chemotherapy to reduce side effects, accelerate the rehabilitation of patients. For patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, patients with weak constitution and not suitable for surgery and chemotherapy and so patients taking GanFuLe capsule can still achieve a good therapeutic effect.
Oral cinobufotalin Anhui toad Biochemical Co., Ltd. is a professional production of anti-cancer drugs in clinical observation and testing for many years based on the use of modern technology dried toad skin extract soluble components in the system made oral agent, which contain glucoside and Chinese toad toad sperm has strong anti-tumor effect, after extraction of the modern advanced processing technology, the safety of non-toxic, patients can rest assured take. Cinobufotalin oral cancer has its unique characteristics, to kill cancer cells completely, inhibit tumor angiogenesis, and to the unique advantages of traditional Chinese medicine to improve the immune function, protect the bone marrow, the cancer while protecting the normal function of the body. In addition, oral use cinobufotalin wide for a variety of malignant tumors, especially in the treatment of advanced tumors, with its unique advantages to play the best anti-cancer effect.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Diagnosis
With liver pain, bloating, loss of appetite, fatigue and significant weight loss and other symptoms and liver enlargement, hard texture, surface nodules and other typical sizes of cases is not difficult clinical diagnosis, but often have reached late. Therefore, the history of middle-aged man who has liver disease, especially in male patients, if unexplained liver pain, weight loss, progressive hepatomegaly, shall be determined and choice B-AFP, CT and other examinations for early diagnosis; on high-risk groups, that is, more than 5 years history of hepatitis, HBsAg positive patients aged over 40 stand for liver cancer screening. AFP continued to increase but the low concentration of normal transaminases, often sub-clinical liver cancer mainly. The exclusion of chronic liver disease, pregnancy and embryonic gonad tumor cases, if the serum AFP> 500mg/mL, continued to 1 month can be diagnosed as primary liver cancer. AFP alone (AFP) can not diagnose all of the liver, because there are still 30% to 40% of HCC patients tested negative for AFP. These patients should be over with B, CT etc. check; hepatic artery angiography can be used when necessary or B-guided needle biopsy and other means to confirm the diagnosis.
Liver cancer - liver cancer complications
Liver complications were gastrointestinal bleeding, liver nodules rupture, liver failure, infection, these complications are often the direct cause of death cause liver cancer.
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common serious complication of liver cancer, is the main reason leading to liver cancer mortality. Leading causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding:
(A) of the esophageal varices
Esophageal varices is upper gastrointestinal bleeding in liver cancer caused the main reason. The main mechanism of its occurrence: 80% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis can lead to increased portal pressure, esophageal varices, when the portal vein or hepatic vein obstruction, portal hypertension can be exacerbated, leading to have varicose esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding; liver can increase liver damage, to the aggravation of cirrhosis, leading to increased portal vein high; when the liver lesions at the hepatic portal, the portal vein pressure can also be to portal vein pressure elevation.
(B) of the clotting mechanism
As the normal liver tissue in patients with liver cancer reduction, reduction of liver synthesis of coagulation factors, coagulation mechanisms occurring obstacles. As hypersplenism, increased destruction of platelets and coagulation mechanisms may also occur obstacles. In addition, the tumor thrombus into the blood, very easily lead to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), causing gastrointestinal bleeding.
(C) of the gastrointestinal mucosa erosion
HCC patients with portal hypertension as a common cause of gastrointestinal stasis, edema, erosion, dynamic membrane, causing bleeding.
Rupture of liver nodules
Spontaneous rupture of primary liver cancer is more common serious liver complications, the occurrence rate of 9% -22.6%, compared with acute disease, dangerous disease and poor prognosis, early diagnosis and timely treatment to improve the prognosis of patients Help. Mechanism of spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma is not fully clear. Most scholars think that is a direct violation of the tumor, so that venous outflow channel obstruction, caused by venous hypertension, which led to bleeding and rupture. Generally speaking, probably the following factors: liver cancer was highly malignant and grow rapidly, resulting in tumor relative insufficiency, resulting in center of ischemia, necrosis and liquefaction. If the tumor volume was increased at this time too fast, and tumor capsule can not be extended, can lead to tumor surface ulceration, and bleeding; liver ischemia, necrosis and secondary infection, can cause bleeding; direct violation of intrahepatic tumor blood vessels , leading to blood vessel rupture; portal vein tumor thrombus embolization was, superficial peripheral portion of tumor necrosis nutritional disorder. Ulceration, can cause bleeding. Tumor located in superficial surface of the liver compartment position, vulnerable to external shocks, meager and cancer tumor capsule also constitutes a very weak reason for bleeding.
Many patients with acute abdominal pain. Started mostly upper abdominal pain, sudden accounted for 95%, with the progression of the disease can gradually develop into full belly, and often accompanied with dizziness. A cold sweat. Nausea, vomiting and other performance. Spontaneous rupture of HCC, there is also limited to the upper abdomen by abdominal pain, and mild, this may be in the position of the small superficial liver nodules rupture, less bleeding, bleeding limited to the liver capsule Next, said subcapsular hemorrhage. Most patients have pale, cool extremities, a cold sweat, pulse breakdown, decreased blood pressure. Ruptured abdominal tenderness, as the cancer varies, rupture, bleeding a small amount of persons, abdominal tenderness may be limited to no obvious lesions or tenderness; broken mouth, bleeding and more who have the whole abdominal tenderness, and some patients may have rebound tenderness and abdominal muscles tight, which may be due to rupture of small bile duct, part of the peritoneum caused by stimulation of bile into the abdominal cavity. Larger amount of bleeding can be seen bulging abdomen, abdominal percussion sound was real, mobility voiced positive bowel sounds decreased or disappeared, Blood tests can lower hemoglobin, leukocytes and neutrophils increased. Diagnostic paracentesis in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture of great significance, and often can not wear to the blood coagulation. B-those who are hard of cases diagnosed has an extremely important role, can confirm the diagnosis.
Liver Cancer - leading cause of deaths
Hepatic encephalopathy: hepatic encephalopathy is the performance of end-stage liver cancer, liver cancer is the leading cause of death (approximately 35%). Department of hepatic encephalopathy often serious damage to liver cancer or both lead to liver cirrhosis caused extensive damage. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, infection, hypokalemia, surgical strikes, drainage of ascites and application of inappropriate and damaging a large number of diuretic drugs in the liver is a common trigger of hepatic encephalopathy. Currently only incentive for its prevention and control, lack of effective therapy. Late because of illness, treatment with little success.
The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is not yet clear, a number of factors may be associated with the following:
(A) of ammonia poisoning theory
Under normal circumstances, the formation and removal of ammonia maintain dynamic balance, so that blood ammonia levels remained normal. Severely damaged liver function, blood ammonia levels can be increased. Elevated blood ammonia levels can be increased or ammonia to form (and) lack of ammonia clearance (ornithine cycle disorder) caused.
(B) false neurotransmitter theory
Catecholamines such as norepinephrine and dopamine in the nervous system of normal neurotransmitters, catecholamines in the blood can not normally blood-brain barrier, it must rely on brain catecholamine synthesis of nerve tissue itself. Protein diet with amino acids such as benzene ring of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which by the bacteria in the intestine can be formed off slope of the role of phenylethylamine and tyramine, such biogenic amines by intestinal absorption from the portal vein were liver.
(C) the plasma amino acid imbalance theory
Under normal circumstances, plasma levels of various amino acids to maintain a more appropriate proportion. AAA (aromatic amino acid) poured into the cell, so that generated more false neurotransmitter and inhibited the synthesis of neurotransmitters, leading to the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. Plasma amino acid imbalance theory is a false neurotransmitter theory of complementary and development.
Bloody hydrothorax and liver damage in patients with severe liver function because, albumin synthesis decreased, together with portal hypertension can often lead to ascites; when planted into the peritoneal tumor cells, may also produce ascites, this time more to bloody ascites; close to the diaphragm rupture of HCC nodules, may also make into a bloody ascites; near the diaphragm direct invasion of liver cancer and pleural transverse depression, can cause bloody pleural effusion; tumor metastasis to the pleura, can cause bloody pleural effusion.
As the lower the resistance of liver cancer patients can often infection. The main sites of infection of respiratory, intestinal, biliary and abdominal cavity. Symptoms of infection due to different forms in different parts, such as respiratory infections, mainly manifested as cough, shortness of breath, fever; intestinal infection mainly as abdominal pain, diarrhea; abdominal infection may have abdominal pain and fever. Infections caused by bacteria, fungal infections are not uncommon.
Cancer patients with fever is more common in the liver, mostly sustained low to moderate heat. Cancer fever is mainly due to liver necrosis after the release of pyrogens into the blood circulation caused. Patients with cancer and fever and infection-induced fever should be differentiated from the former antibiotic treatment fails and there is no other significant addition to fever symptoms, the patient responded well to the antipyretic and analgesic.
Hepatocellular carcinoma - liver cirrhosis
Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis, decompensated liver cirrhosis at the time, often suddenly or gradually occurs little or no urine, azotemia and other functional renal failure in the performance of the device at a time when the kidney does not mass lesions, described as hepatorenal syndrome (renal failure or liver, HRS majority of these patients were progressive deepening jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, hypoalbuminemia and refractory ascites liver failure performance, disease is characterized by the end of deep coma, severe oliguria, and decreased blood pressure.
(A) increased renal sympathetic tone
Severely impaired liver function in the case, the following factors can increase renal sympathetic tone: ① low blood volume; ② visceral hemodynamics;
(B) of the renin-angiotensin system activity increased in a
Liver dysfunction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, in general, significantly increased the renin-angiotensin, leading to renal vasoconstriction.
(C) of the kallikrein kinin system activity of a serious liver abnormalities in patients with plasma kallikrein and bradykinin in the reduction, while increased activity of plasma renin and angiotensin. These combined changes result in vasodilator and vasoconstrictor activity decreased activity increased, resulting in renal vasoconstriction.
(D) lack of prostaglandin
(E) endotoxemia
(Vi) accumulation of false neurotransmitters
In short, hepatic failure, renal vasoconstriction occurred factors can be categorized into two categories: one is generated when the liver function was impaired, or damaged liver can not be removed from the cycle of toxic substances such as endotoxin and false neurotransmitters, etc.; the other is a low blood volume and portal hypertension caused by reduced effective circulating blood volume. Clinical manifestations: liver and kidney deficiency syndrome in patients with hypoproteinemia addition, portal hypertension, ascites and jaundice and other large state of liver function under all of the clinical manifestations, but also with renal failure to present a provisional clinical manifestations of renal failure depends on the priority of the onset, acute onset, could suddenly oliguria, anuria, azotemia, etc., the condition deteriorated in a short time. Once patients with hepatocellular carcinoma syndrome, its prognosis is poor.
Liver cancer - early prevention
Early symptoms of liver cancer: Based on epidemiological surveys, approximately 90% of liver cancer and hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive, "two pairs of half" positive, hepatitis C antibody positive are a sign of hepatitis virus infection.
Preventive Measures: over the age of 35 hepatitis B surface antigen positive, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis in 5 years, three generations of relatives who have a family history of liver cancer testing every six months followed by B-fetoprotein and liver, is the early detection of liver cancer the most effective way.
In addition, the injection of hepatitis B vaccine; transfusion of blood products is not guaranteed hepatitis virus infection. Alcohol is a major cause of liver cancer the enemy, so to prevent liver cancer should be drinking.
Certain substances in the diet can prevent cancer, cancer, and some carcinogenic substances in another tumor promotion, so good eating habits is very important to offer you the following note:
1, regular diet, quantitative, Eat small meals often more appropriate to the digestive tract cancer patients.
2, eat more vitamin A, C, E foods, eat more green vegetables and fruits.
3, eat with can inhibit the carcinogenic effects of food, such as Kohlrabi, cabbage, carrots, rape, garlic, vegetable oil and fish.
4, do not eat salted, smoked, grilled and fried food, especially burned the coking of the token.
5, insist low-fat diet, eat more lean meat, eggs and yogurt.
6, food should be kept fresh, do not eat moldy food and drink.
7, determined to get rid of harmful alcohol addiction.
8, to maintain smooth stool, constipation, patients should eat foods rich in fiber and drank some honey.
9, eat coarse grains, such as Cumi, corn, whole cereals, eat white rice, refined surface.
10, eat nutritious foods dried fruit seeds such as sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, watermelon seeds, peanuts, walnuts, dried apricots, almonds, raisins, etc.. [2]
Liver cancer - after the problem
Liver cancer recurrence after surgery will it?
High recurrence rate after liver resection. Liver Cancer Institute, Shanghai Medical University, according to the information in the past with large hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection 5-year recurrence rate was 61.5%, also up 43.5% of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent analysis of 308 cases of positive preoperative fetoprotein, liver returned to normal after resection of AFP cases (radical resection is more reliable), the l, 3,5,10-year recurrence rates were 9.2% 38.8%, 54.1%, 85.0%. Recurrence rate of liver cancer 3 years ago as the highest, generally after 2 years of high incidence.
Recurrence of liver cancer is the leading cause of death after resection of late. Recurrence is common in the liver, a small number of lung, bone and other parts of the transfer. Recent (1 to 2 years) more than the original liver tumor recurrence intrahepatic metastasis, long-term (2 to 4 years) intrahepatic recurrence of the number of those multi-center place. Recurrence according to different types take different treatment strategies, such as a single center, consider re-excision; the case of multi-center, intervention and comprehensive treatment should be taken.

Liver cancer genetic?
Since the possibility of liver cancer have a family history, resulting in many people think that there is genetic liver cancer. So there is no hereditary liver cancer in the end it? Cancer is the external cause of 90% of the genetic etiology of the tumor weight in a very small percentage. Apart from the evolution of multiple polyps from the colon, dry skin color of the skin cancer patients turned into substandard, many other cancers and genetic factors are considered no clear relationship. For those few people at the same time or before or troubles liver cancer families, living conditions may be common, such as a common contact with a carcinogen, the same diet will lead to people suffering from liver cancer, liver cancer which is the genetic little to do with sex.
In general, the liver is not based on the genetic reason why a family tendency, we can consider the following aspects:
1, the horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus: hepatitis patients is extremely close contact with family members, if an infection of hepatitis B virus, it is easy to unwittingly bring disaster to others. This situation also shows that liver cancer can not be attributed to liver cancer family genetic tendency.
2, the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus: hepatitis B virus infection and subjected to a long-term virus carriers of the mother, in childbirth or after delivery may transmit the virus to newborns. As the neonatal immune function is not fully developed, can not effectively clear the virus and the formation of persistent infection, so as to cause chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and finally evolved into the liver, this situation often be mistaken for liver cancer genetic.
3, between the family eating habits, lifestyle, etc. are basically the same, all chance of contact with carcinogenic factors are almost equal, will result in more than one person simultaneously or successively for liver cancer.
In conclusion, liver cancer genetic argument is not established, experts recommend: liver cancer patients at home have a friend do the best prevention of liver cancer, or more than a change of home environment, eating habits, etc., to prevent liver cancer happening again.

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