2010年8月8日星期日

Esophageal cancer

Esophageal cancer




Abstract correcting edit summary

Esophagus (shidaoai) also known as esophageal cancer (shiguanai), is one of common malignant tumors in humans. About 30 million people worldwide die from cancer each year. China is a high incidence area of esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer deaths every year about 15 million people, accounting for nearly a quarter of all cancer deaths. Esophageal cancer mortality rates vary greatly all over the country, according to survey data in China Review of Cancer Mortality statistics, mortality adjusted esophageal cancer population in Yunnan lowest level (105/10 million), with the difference of 14 times the national level, and mortality Henan Province, the highest difference of 31 times. The incidence of esophageal cancer have significant regional differences, China has high incidence of esophageal cancer: high incidence of Taihang: Linn County, including Henan, Hebei Cixian, Shanxi Yangcheng a dozen cities and counties. Age of onset was higher in high age group, aged 70, then decreased gradually. Esophageal cancer in China the average age of death of men and women together was 63.49 years, the proportion of different age, the highest percentage to 55-74 years of age. Thus, esophageal cancer is common disease in the elderly.

Esophagus - common symptoms

Esophageal cancer

Early symptoms:



1. Swallow stem choking sense: the most common, can choose the disappearance and recurrence, no effect on swallowing. Often occurs in patients with mood swings, it is often mistaken for functional symptoms.

2. Retrosternal pain and xiphoid under: more common. After the sternum when swallowing or xiphoid of the pain, was burning like nature can, like acupuncture or traction like to swallow rough, hot or spicy food as a.

3. Food stranded infection and foreign body sensation: when ingesting food or water, some food and stay slow down the feeling, and chest tightening after the flu or food adhesion to the wall so fresh feeling of complete disappearance of food.

4. Throat dry and tight feeling: to swallow food especially dry, rough, the symptoms were often related to the patient's mood swings.

Late symptoms:



1. Dysphagia: Progressive dysphagia is when the vast majority of visits were the main symptoms, but late expression of this disease.

2. Food reactions: often when dysphagia aggravated, anti-throughput, containing food and mucus, with blood and pus can be.

3. Other symptoms: When the cancer can cause hoarseness in recurrent laryngeal nerve compression; violations of the phrenic nerve can cause hiccups or phrenic nerve paralysis; compression of the trachea or bronchus, there may be shortness of breath and dry cough; erosion aorta can produce fatal hemorrhage.

Esophageal cancer - etiology and pathology

Esophageal lesions, the diverse parts of China, but are in the middle of the most (52.69% ~ 63.33%), followed by lower segment (24.95% ~ 38.92%), at least the upper (2.80% ~ 14.10%). In 622 patients, accounted for 68.90% middle, lower segment accounted for 36.40%, accounted for 4.70% the previous paragraph.

(A) clinical staging and classification

1. Clinical staging of esophageal cancer clinical staging, and treatment options and assessment of treatment is important. 1976 established the National Working Conference esophageal cancer clinical staging criteria in Table 18-7.

Table 18-7 Clinical staging of esophageal cancer

Stage 01234

Lesion length does not require <3cm 3 ~ 5cm> 5cm> 5cm

Lesions limited to the mucosal layer of muscle invasive submucosal invasive part of the invasion through the muscle layer or outer layer of significant foreign invasion

Metastasis metastasis metastasis metastasis without regional lymph node metastasis, lymph node or distant organ metastasis



2. Pathologic classification

(1) Early pathological changes of esophageal cancer type:



Esophageal cancer

Early esophageal cancer can be divided according to their shape hidden erosive, plaque and papillary. Which the plaque is the most common, accounting for early esophageal cancer in about 1 / 2, this type of cancer cells were well differentiated. Erosive accounted 1 / 3, poorly differentiated cancer cells. The first hidden lesions, both carcinoma in situ, but only early esophageal cancer 1 / 10. Papillary lesions of late, though generally well differentiated cancer cells, but the operative findings are rarely seen in situ.

(2) in advanced esophageal pathological type:

Can be divided into medullary type, fungating, ulcerative, narrow type, cavity type and not stereotypes. In which the highest degree of medullary-type malignant, and accounted for in advanced esophageal cancer 1 / 2. This type of cancer can involve layers of esophageal wall to the cavity expansion within and outside the esophageal circumference of all or most of, and connective tissue around the esophagus may be involved, with varying degrees of cell differentiation. Fungating about in advanced esophageal cancer 1 / 6 ~ 1 / 5, carcinoid tumors were round or oval mass, the esophagus was protruding mushroom umbrella, most esophageal wall can be involved. Ulceration and narrowing of each type in advanced esophageal cancer 1 / 10. Ulceration over the surface of a deep ulcer, bleeding and early metastasis, which occurred late obstruction. Growth ring type was narrow, and mostly involved the week esophagus and esophageal mucosa showed concentric contraction, it appears early obstruction, and bleeding and late metastasis. Cavity type is rare, carcinoid tumor protruding into the esophageal lumen, were round or oval bulge, there pedicle wall is connected with water, erosion or ulceration of the surface often. Tumor can invade the muscle, but lower than the above type is shallow. Few in advanced esophageal cancer can not be classified in the various types of persons, not as stereotypes.

3. Histological type

(1) squamous cell carcinoma: the most common.

(2) adenocarcinoma: rare, can be divided into pure adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

(3) undifferentiated carcinoma: rare but highly malignant.

Esophagus, the middle majority of squamous cell carcinoma cancer, esophageal cancer is mostly adenocarcinoma. 622 patients with esophageal cancer in our hospital, 441 cases were made by pathological examination, which accounted for 87.3% of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma 10.6%, undifferentiated carcinoma 1.5%, 0.6% other cancers.

(B) of esophageal cancer proliferation and metastasis method

1. Proliferation of esophageal cancer in esophageal wall near the bottom of epithelial cells into cancer or carcinoma in situ, carcinoma of the surface diffusion is one of the ways. Esophageal cancer is also often along the lamina propria or submucosa lymphatic invasion.

2. Direct infiltration of adjacent organs upper esophageal carcinoma can invade the larynx, trachea and neck soft tissue, and even penetrated the thyroid. Bronchial carcinoma can invade the middle to form a bronchial - esophageal fistula; also can invade the thoracic duct, azygos vein, hilar and lung tissue, part of the esophagus can invade the aorta to form - aortic fistula, caused massive hemorrhage and death. Can often involve the lower esophageal cardiac and pericardial. Total direct involvement of adjacent organs and esophagus were about 1 / 2, involved organs were the lung and pleura, trachea and bronchi, spine, heart and pericardium, aorta, thyroid and pharynx.

3. Lymph node metastasis are more common, accounting for cases 2 / 3. Often transferred to a middle esophageal paraesophageal or mediastinal lymph nodes can also be transferred to the neck, around the door and the responsibility the left gastric artery lymph nodes. Lower esophageal cancer often can be transferred to the next adjacent cardia, left gastric artery adjacent tissues such as abdominal lymph nodes, even to first mediastinal and cervical lymph nodes. Sites were mediastinal lymph node, stomach, trachea and paratracheal, hilar and bronchial side.

4. Metastatic more common in patients with advanced. The most common metastasis to the liver (about 1 / 4) and lung (about 1 / 5), and other organs were bone, kidney, adrenal gland, pleura, omentum, pancreas, heart, lung, thyroid and brain.

Esophageal cancer - diagnostic criteria

Esophageal cancer

(A) of the barium meal, pull all negative net

1  no swallowing discomfort, but more than 40 years of age, from esophageal cancer positive family history of high incidence or every six months to review a second drawing in the net cytology.

2  have swallowing symptoms and risk factors associated with the above-mentioned persons, each drawing in the net after 3 months a time, and can apply checks and swallowing water Occult Blood Bead tone diagram (see later).

3  If symptoms continue or swallowing Occult Blood Bead, swallowing water sound plan positive fibers Esophagoscopy should be carried out, such as still unable to diagnose the disease should be closely observed, every 1 to 2 months was 1.

(B) barium-negative, drawing in the net positive

1  chest CT or chest radiograph examination, excluding upper respiratory tract tumors.

2  double contrast barium-line, multi-dimensional observation of the esophagus, watch for mucosal changes.

3  network will pull away from the incisors catheter was sent to 25 cm, 35 cm, 35 cm for the following sub-office drawing in the net, to help locate, help to develop treatment programs.

4  esophageal endoscopy can often show more clearly the lesion, to further clarify its scope, depth, size and shape. If the disease is difficult to qualitatively, the preferred biopsy cytology line.

(C) barium positive, drawing in the net negative

1  repeat cytology, and pull in the net bag to the lesion volume when inflated due to increase capsule to reduce misdiagnosis.

2  Esophagoscopy under direct vision to obtain cytology and histology diagnosis, certain lesions, except for benign disease, as an important basis for the design of treatment programs.

3  small number of atypical cases, symptoms persist, still not confirmed by the inspection should promptly line thoracotomy.

(D) of the barium meal, netting or esophagoscopy were positive

Is the range of patients, mostly in advanced esophageal cancer, symptoms and barium meal than the typical, generally do not need to cytology. However, in order accurate preoperative staging and prognosis, according to the conditions for the following checks to make preoperative preparation.

1  even advanced patients, esophageal endoscopy is still necessary in order to understand cancer, the extent of foreign invasion, endoscopic and histological type. In recent years an increased incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal small cell carcinoma and multiple primary cancers have frequently reported, these findings with preoperative TNM staging and treatment of tumor is closely related.

2  tracheal bifurcation is a division of the tumor, lymph node metastasis to understand an important sign. Tracheal bifurcation in more than cancer, lymph node metastasis up to the main direction of the neck and upper mediastinum area, otherwise the major downward shift. Thus, in the tracheal bifurcation, the thoracic esophageal cancer preoperative neck ultrasound and chest CT scan B, help to determine the extent of the operation, and according to whether the mediastinum was observed by barium meal, the trachea changes necessary for bronchoscopy in Large airway involvement were distinguished.

3  endoscopic ultrasound, thoracoscopy, B ultrasonic examination of the invasive depth and lymph node metastasis will also be prompted.

Esophageal cancer - conventional therapy (1) Surgical treatment of esophageal cancer

(1) surgical indications: body in good condition, major organ function to tolerate surgery; no distant metastasis; partial resection of lesions may be estimated; no persistent pain in chest and back; without hoarseness, and irritating cough.



(2) contraindication for surgery: the apparent tumor invasion, there are signs of wear were adjacent organs and distant metastases; have serious heart and lung failure, can not afford surgery; cachexia.



(3) estimate the possibility of surgical resection: disease sooner, the higher the removal rate; medulla fungating type and resection rate and the ulceration than narrowing the type of high; lower rate of esophageal cancer resection, followed by middle, upper lower ; lesions of soft tissue around the soft tissue shadow than the shadow without removal rate; esophageal axis changes were lower than those without change. Comprehensive analysis of these factors, the possibility of preoperative tumor resection of great help to judge.



(4), esophageal cancer resection: a non-surgical procedure commonly used in chest and thoracic surgery two categories. Non-thoracotomy esophagectomy include: ① pull off esophageal inversion technique, mainly applicable to hypopharynx and cervical esophagus; ② blunt dissection of esophageal resection and can be used within the thoracic esophageal cancer, cancer had no cases of foreign invasion ; ③ sternal part of the split neck incision (Figure 39-1) for the aortic arch above the lower edge of the upper thoracic esophageal cancer. These types of surgical removal of the tumor and the esophagus, stomach or colon with the bed raised to the neck and esophageal or pharyngeal and esophageal anastomosis. Such surgery with less trauma and cardiopulmonary function Liu, etc, but not OK mediastinal lymph node dissection. Thoracic surgery are mainly: ① posterolateral left chest cut l: 3, suitable for middle and lower esophagus; ② right anterolateral cut El, suitable for medium and upper esophageal carcinoma, tumor resection, the stomach and abdominal sword mentioned by the hole to the right chest tube and esophageal anastomosis, the length of esophageal resection from the tumor margin at least 5-7cm; ③ If the lesion high enough for the smell of urine evidence of esophageal resection length, possible neck cut l3, stomach and sent to the neck and esophageal anastomosis, the right chest, upper abdomen and neck three incisions, before I head over the middle of esophageal cancer have favored a three-way cut 1:3. Lymph node dissection should also be OK.



Common after esophagectomy stomach, colon reconstruction of the esophagus, stomach being the most commonly used, because of its blood supply and healing ability, simple operation, only one anastomosis, consistent with available equipment or by hand. Stomach may be due a raise to the neck, can be used for the esophageal resection and reconstruction. Sufficient length of the colon can be excised with the pharynx or cervical esophagus anastomosis, can be used for unresectable tumors of patients with gastric bypass surgery or subtotal esophageal reconstruction. Hypopharynx and the cervical esophagus after resection of cervical esophagus with the stomach than defect, correction of intestinal reconstruction, can still use the free jejunal graft or muscle flap reconstruction.



(5) palliative surgery: swallowing difficulties with serious cancer cases could not be removed, based on the patient to choose the following palliative surgery, to address the patient feeding. Commonly used methods are: ① gastric or jejunostomy; ② esophagus catheter technique, currently used with a film shape memory alloy stent, the tube method is simple and can lift the patient feeding obstruction; ③ esophageal shunt surgery exploring the tumor can not be removed, the patient severe obstructive symptoms, can be used in the thoracic stomach and esophageal cancer at the top of line shunt side to side anastomosis. If the preoperative estimation of tumor resection difficult, can be used non-thoracotomy substernal colon bypass surgery, this method has been rarely used.



(6) postoperative complications and treatment: ① anastomotic leak: cervical anastomotic fistula patients do not pose a threat to life, more able to heal after drainage; intrathoracic anastomotic leakage on a patient at risk, and high mortality , intrathoracic anastomotic fistula occurred in 5 to 10 days after surgery, the patient breathing difficulty and chest pain, X-ray signs of pneumothorax with fluid, oral iodine contrast agents out of the water shows esophagus, should be placed immediately closed thoracic drainage, fasting the use of effective antibiotics and supportive treatment; early fistula patients, surgical repair can be tried and used omentum or intercostal muscle flap to strengthen.



② pulmonary complications include: pneumonia, atelectasis, pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, to more common lung infection, should pay close attention; patients to encourage patients to cough, sputum, strengthening respiratory tract in order to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications.



③ chylothorax: thoracic duct injury was caused by surgery, more than occurred in patients 2 to 10 days, the patient felt chest tightness, shortness of breath, flustered. Chylous pleural effusion test positive; once diagnosed, should be placed closed thoracic drainage, close observation of drainage, less traffic, could give low-fat diet, maintaining water and electrolyte balance and nutritional supplements, some patients may be healed. Large flow of patients on the chyle should promptly thoracotomy ligation of the thoracic duct.



④ Other complications include hemothorax, pneumothorax, chest infection, according to the processing condition accordingly.



(7) results of operations: surgical treatment of esophageal cancer in China is better, surgical resection rate was 56.3% -80%, 5-year survival rate of 30%; early esophageal cancer resection rate of l00%, 5-year survival rate of 90%.



(B) of esophageal cancer radiotherapy



Esophageal cancer

Radiotherapy indication wide, in addition to the formation of esophageal perforation, esophageal fistula, distant metastasis, significantly cachexia, severe heart, lung, liver and other diseases, radiation therapy may be OK.

1) Indications:

(1) patients over the general situation in the middle;

(2) lesion length of not more than 8cm suitable;

(3) No supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, silent with paralysis, no distant metastasis;

(4) can be into the semi-liquid food or the normal diet;

(5) no signs of perforation before ※, no significant thoracodorsal pain;

(6) should cytology or pathology diagnosis, especially in superficial esophageal cancer.

※ Note: The signs of esophageal perforation ago: ① spikes stand out: the lesion, spike-like prominence, small in size as burr, as powerful as the wedge; ② Kanying form: a large ulcer; ③ diverticulum degeneration: the formation and general similar to esophageal diverticulum, mostly occurs in radiotherapy; ④ distorted angle: loss of normal wall of moving water, it seems as long bone fracture dislocation; ⑤ mediastinitis: mediastinal widening shadow, patient body temperature, pulse speed, thoracodorsal pain. After perforation of poor prognosis, most patients die within a few months.

2) radiation dose and time: Usually irradiated tumor volume was 60Gy ~ 70Gy / 6 ~ 7 周.

3) The response to external exposure

(1) esophageal response: exposure to tumor volume of 10 ~ 20Gy / 1 ~ 2 weeks, the esophageal mucosal edema, may increase dysphagia, usually for treatment from time, exposure volume of 30 ~ 40Gy / 3 ~ 4 weeks, can produce swallow pain and retrosternal pain, appropriate symptomatic treatment.

(2) tracheal response: cough, mostly dry cough, phlegm less.



4) complications

(1) hemorrhage: incidence of about 1%. Should select patients, those with significant ulcers, in particular, there is a burr-like prominence of the deep ulcer, should be particularly careful to reduce the dose each time, extending the total treatment time, the radiation process, should always be observed X-ray barium meal .

(2) perforation: incidence rate is about 3%, which may penetrate the trachea, esophageal fistula formation or penetration mediastinum, causing mediastinal inflammation.

(3) radiation myelopathy: spinal cord disease is radiation head, neck, chest, severe complications of cancer radiotherapy is one. The incubation period after irradiation more than 1 to 2 years.



(C) chemotherapy

Commonly used drugs are cisplatin, BLM, etc., although about 50% efficient, but its efficacy is not satisfactory.

Advanced esophageal cancer treatment

The treatment of advanced esophageal cancer treated with Chinese herbs is the best choice. Advanced esophageal cancer are treated with radiation therapy and do not use chemotherapy. Surgical treatment of advanced esophageal cancer proliferation should be read to determine the site of metastasis.

The treatment of advanced esophageal cancer treatment using traditional Chinese medicine is very good. Late recurrence of esophageal cancer is very easy to transfer, Western treatment less effective. At this point do not significantly effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, chemotherapy side effects were large, weak, too old, damaged heart liver and kidney dysfunction, bone marrow suppression were not applied. And Chinese medicine can not only use of esophageal cancer early, middle and late, but also before and after use and operation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment, significantly improved patient outcomes. Reduce the adverse reactions after chemotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are reduced to bring the Sun Shang patients, to improve their own immunity, and enhance patient outcomes.

Esophageal cancer in Chinese medicine are of "Ye Ge," "choke" category. The incidence of esophageal cancer with spleen and kidney deficiency, phlegm silt Finding the TCM treatment to enrich yin and blood, spleen Qi, Chu Tan Stasis treatment start. According to Chinese medicine principles, the Chinese Herb, Chinese medicine with modern science and technology to process uranium concentrate made from the appropriate forms. All of the patients used medication.

Late treatment of esophageal cancer esophagus through oral solution containing of XAP pill Xiaoaiping paste, esophagus through particles results have been positive effects. Esophagus through oral solution of XAP with pills, taken orally Xiaoaiping stickers affixed outside the "Trinity therapy" used in the clinic with a wide range of applications have been hit more than 97% efficiency.

ZXC take the essence of Chinese medicine in China, selected three dozen non-toxic taste of luxury with modern science and technology concentrated Chinese herbal extract is refined. No toxic prescription drugs blindly to Qingrejiedu Xiaotansanjie, blood circulation, vital essence for the treatment of the principle to treat cancer, is the drug of choice for the treatment of esophageal cancer. ZXC can inhibit tumor cell proliferation, metastasis, effectively shrink the tumor lesions, improving the symptoms caused by cancer. Is a non-toxic anti-cancer drugs.

XAP film is made of pure Chinese traditional medicine extraction, treatment on a significant tract cancers. The period of treatment for esophageal cancer. Is a broad-spectrum anti-cancer drugs. With the vital essence, removing heat from blood and pain relief, the efficacy of Endometriosis, can directly kill a variety of cancer cells, inhibition of cancer metastasis, but also enhance the body's immunity.

Chinese medicine treatment of advanced esophageal cancer is not a substitute for any treatment, and Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer in Chinese occupied an important position. The treatment of esophageal cancer in Chinese medicine will eventually rule the break. Establish confidence in the struggle with the disease, do not despair

Data indicate that the incidence of mental state and disease development and prognosis of very closely related. The treatment of suspected loss of confidence, pessimism, depression, disappointments, poor efficacy, and ease of tumor recurrence and survival time than the cheerful, brave struggle with the disease, many patients short. In particular, some patients, the treatment for some reason, mental state deteriorated, the condition often also nosedive.

Esophageal cancer - prevention

Esophageal cancer

The results show that:

① cancer can not be formed in weak alkaline body;

② cancer only in the formation of acid in the body;

③ If you have cancer, indicating the body is acidic;

④ cancer can only be extended in an acidic body;

⑤ If your body is weak alkaline, cancer can not be extended;

⑥ If you can balance the PH value of your body, let your body into weak alkaline, no matter what you have to have change and be cured of cancer;

⑦ no matter how bad your situation, even if only live 6 months, if you can change your body into weak alkaline PH value, you will not be extended to cancer, will be good;

⑧ Do not worry your family, your mom, dad or anyone else has cancer, as long as your body is alkaline, you will not have to, if you already have, it will change;

⑨ are acidic body fluids of cancer survival, nothing else. If your body is acidic, you will get cancer. If it is weak base, and you will not get cancer. If you already have cancer, as long as you can adjust your body's PH value to weak alkaline, cancer will leave you.

Cancer prevention tips are very simple things as basic food in order to prevent the accumulation of acid waste, because the acidification of the fluid environment is fertile ground for normal cell cancerous, adjust the pH balance of body fluids is an effective way to prevent cancer.

A) to develop good habits, smoking cessation alcohol limit. Smoking, the World Health Organization predicts that if people are not smoking, five years later, the world's cancer will be reduced 1 / 3; Second, do not drink. Tobacco and alcohol are very acid acid, long-term smokers who drink, easily lead to acidic.

B) Do not eat too much salty and spicy food, do not eat heat, cold, late and bad food; frail or have a disease genes are appropriate to eat a number of anti-cancer foods and high alkali content alkaline food, maintain a good mental state.

C) have a good mentality to cope with stress, work and rest, do not fatigue. Shows that pressure is an important incentive cancer, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that stress caused by fatigue physically weak and thus lead to decreased immune function, endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders, resulting in the deposition of acid substances; pressure can lead to stagnation of qi and blood stasis caused by mental stress, toxic fire retraction so.

D) to enhance physical activity, physical fitness, sports and more in the sun, sweating more acid the body can be excreted with the sweat and avoid the formation of acidic.

E) to the law of life, habits are not regular people, such as through the night singing karaoke OK, play mahjong, night out and other living without law, will increase the acidic, prone to cancer. Should develop good habits to maintain alkaline body, so far from various types of cancer diseases.

F) not to eat contaminated food, such as contaminated water, crops, poultry, fish balls, moldy food, eat green organic food, to prevent the disease from the mouth.

Diet is one of the main reason for esophageal cancer, esophageal cancer prevention diet is the key. Prevention of esophageal cancer which should be on diet? Study found that long-term lack of micronutrients such as zinc, molybdenum, selenium and vitamins A, B2, C, E, etc. in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer play a role. Therefore, the prevention of esophageal cancer can start from the diet. From the food perspective, esophageal cancer prevention and health care approach has the following aspects:

1 diet of eating nutritious food, and to the diversity of plant food-based diet, rich in a variety of fruit and vegetable choices, beans vegetable meals, but that does not mean to be vegetarian, but should be allowed to plant foods accounted for cooking 2 / 3. 2, restriction of salt: the daily adult salt intake from all sources should not exceed 6 grams, including a variety of salted food. 3, eat more vegetables and fruits, to provide heat to reach 7% of the total energy of the year to eat a variety of vegetables and fruits a day, every day up to 400-800 grams.

4 Do not drink alcohol, especially excessive drinking should not be.

5, red meat in meat products (defined as cattle, sheep, pork and their products) in total energy intake should be below 10% should be less than 80 grams per day, the best choice for fish and poultry.

6, total fat and oils provide energy to be 15% of total energy to 30% higher fat content restrictions, especially more animal fat, vegetable oil should also be appropriate, and should be selected with monounsaturated fat hydrogenated vegetable oil and less. 7, to minimize fungal contamination of foods should avoid eating contaminated by mycotoxins or long-term storage at room temperature food.

Esophageal cancer prevention diet is an integral part of, but not only in the diet, also need to pay attention to the positive treatment of esophageal diseases such as esophagitis, leukoplakia, polyps, diverticula, achalasia psychosis, because of organizational changes of the functional variation local irritation, the formation of cancer progression risk.

Esophageal cancer - risk factors

(1) genetic factors: a significant cancer family aggregation, high-incidence area for more than three generations or three generations of family illness common, but certainly there is no genetic cancer, but the family has a close link between eating habits.

(2) nitrosamines: Nitrosamines compounds is a strong carcinogen, studies show that eating sauerkraut Linxian esophageal high-incidence area residents, gastric juice and urine of esophageal cancer induced by the existence of methyl benzyl nitrosamine, nitroso pyrrolidine, NTG Ding. And found that consumption of sauerkraut is proportional to the amount and the incidence of esophageal cancer.

(3), trace elements and malnutrition: esophageal cancer among serum high incidence of molybdenum, molybdenum hair, urine molybdenum and molybdenum in esophageal cancer are lower than normal. Linxian esophageal cancer in high-incidence area lack of water and soil molybdenum, molybdenum tumor suppressor role has been confirmed that the majority of scholars. Malnutrition, inadequate intake of animal protein and vitamin AB2C residents lack a high esophageal cancer diet, but most of the common features of esophageal cancer in high incidence of malnutrition is not high so it can not be a dominant factor

(4) esophageal mucosal injury: Long-term hi into the hot food and eating, drinking tea, eating more peppers and other spicy food can cause esophageal mucosal damage, caused by changes in esophageal mucosal hyperplasia, one of the factors may be carcinogenic. Smoking, drinking alcohol and cancer have a certain relationship. Various long-term healing of the esophagitis may be precancerous lesions of esophageal cancer.

(5) a factor in causing mold: moldy food can be induced in mice with esophageal and gastric precancerous lesions or squamous cell carcinoma. Proliferative type of mold and synergistic effect of N-nitrosamines.

Esophageal cancer - effects drugs

Esophageal cancer

The following drugs from Chinese esophageal cancer in Henan Province and Zhengzhou, China Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine Esophageal Cancer Hospital Institute of Health jointly developed a series of pure traditional Chinese medicine, the main treatment in the series of pure Chinese esophageal, gastric cardia, gastric cancer caused by choking down food food phlegm constantly, into food that is spit, food regurgitation, dysphagia, cough, hoarseness, weight loss, constipation, indigestion and pain and other symptoms of reflex lesions have good results. On eating problems, pain or drop of water does not enter general medicine patients 3 - 7 days to water consumption, reduce pain. Cure for the treatment of esophageal cancer, cardiac cure for cancer specific drugs.

1, esophagus through oral

Effect: Food obstruction; phlegm; qi stasis; enhance immunity; kill cancer cells; inhibit cancer cell development;

2 Xiaoaiping of pills containing

Effect: Open the esophagus; discharge mucus; softening tumor; adjust the spleen and stomach;

3, XAP Posts

Effectiveness: Traditional; Consumer cancer pain; Poyu by water; skin penetration to kill cancer cells; inhibit cancer cell growth, proliferation, transfer.

4, removal of cancer Pills

Efficacy: Qingrejiedu; Sanyu pain; remove lumps; enhance immunity; Endometriosis; dehumidification spleen.

5, removal of cancer through Granules

Effects: anti-cancer anti-inflammatory; kill cancer cells; inhibition of cancer cell, proliferation, transfer; improve immunity.

6, esophagus Granules

Effects: anti-inflammatory swelling; analgesic; opening of the esophagus; microcirculation; enhance immunity; kill cancer cells; inhibition of cancer cell, proliferation, transfer; improve immunity.

7, elimination cured cancer tumor capsule

Effects: Cancer of tumor, pain swelling, Po Yu by water, vital essence, improve immunity.

8, cured cancer medicine Tang Xiao Liu

Efficacy: Qingrejiedu; righting accompany this; Qi Po Yu; detoxification Sanjie; kill cancer cells; inhibited cancer cell, diffusion, transfer; improve immunity.

9, Xiao Liu remove tumor thrombus

Effect: clearing and detoxifying, promoting blood circulation, anti-inflammatory pain, cancer suppressor.

10, Esophagus Ping San

Efficacy: Qi Po Yu, detoxification Sanjie. Used in advanced esophageal cancer Erzhi esophageal stricture and obstruction, dysphagia, pain, Ye Ge anti-saliva and other illnesses.

11, reference Dan dissolving capsule

Effectiveness: Qi Sun, solid table antiperspirant, but also benefit the water swelling, drug myogenic care, "added the five internal organs weakness and inadequate", "added strength, fully Cou management, governance injured workers, long muscles." Compatibility with ginseng, complementary, beneficial effect of increasing, to Qi Fu Zheng, and rule the present, enhance the body resistance to disease. [1]

Esophageal cancer - esophageal cancer treatment

The treatment of early esophageal cancer should be using surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the combination of Chinese medicine treatment of combined modality therapy, we should adopt Chinese for advanced conservative treatment.

1, surgical treatment

1. Major surgery: Surgery is the preferred method of treatment of early esophageal cancer. Once diagnosed esophageal cancer patients, physical condition permits that should be taken to surgery. The condition of patients can be divided into two kinds of palliative surgery and radical surgery. Palliative surgery for advanced primary or radiotherapy can not cure patients, to resolve the difficulties with eating esophagogastric bypass, gastrostomy, esophageal lumen catheter technique and so on. Radical surgery patients according to lesion site and the specific circumstances. The majority principle, be removed esophagus, esophageal resection should be at least 5cm away from the tumor over. Lower cancer resection rate of 90%, 50% carcinoma of the middle, upper rate of tumor resection in 56.3% to 92.9%. ① surgery contraindications to clinical x lines confirmed as extensive esophageal lesions and involved adjacent organs, such as the trachea, lung, mediastinum, aorta and so on. ② severe cardiopulmonary or renal dysfunction or cachexia can not tolerate surgery. 2. Minor surgery: clinical recommendations for patients with advanced general (almost can not swallow the patients) were placed stents, this a small operation to a small bracket into the lesion site, expanding the expanded esophagus (ps: momentary distraction will hurt), to allow patients to eat to achieve, but this can only be short-term continuation of life for patients has been unable to do surgery to remove the price probably about 1W, where different prices are not the same, if the family economic conditions permit, This approach can extend the life of a certain period.

Second, radiation therapy

Radiotherapy indication wide, in addition to the formation of esophageal perforation, esophageal fistula, distant metastasis, significantly cachexia, severe heart, lung, liver and other diseases, radiation therapy may be OK. 1) Indications: (1) patients generally above the average; (2) lesion length of not more than 8cm is appropriate; (3) No supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, silent with paralysis, no distant metastasis; (4) can be into the semi- stream water or common food; (5) no signs of perforation before ※, no significant thoracodorsal pain; (6) should cytology or pathology diagnosis, especially in superficial esophageal cancer. ※ Note: The signs of esophageal perforation ago: ① spikes stand out: the lesion, spike-like prominence, small in size as burr, as powerful as the wedge; ② Kanying form: a large ulcer; ③ diverticulum degeneration: the formation and general similar to esophageal diverticulum, mostly occurs in radiotherapy; ④ distorted angle: loss of normal wall of moving water, it seems as long bone fracture dislocation; ⑤ mediastinitis: mediastinal widening shadow, patient body temperature, pulse speed, thoracodorsal pain. After perforation of poor prognosis, most patients die within a few months. 2) radiation dose and time: Usually irradiated tumor volume was 60Gy ~ 70Gy / 6 ~ 7 周. 3) external exposure of the reaction (1) esophageal response: exposure to tumor volume of 10 ~ 20Gy / 1 ~ 2 weeks, the esophageal mucosal edema, may increase dysphagia, usually for treatment from time, exposure volume of 30 ~ 40Gy / 3 ~ After 4 weeks, can produce pain in swallowing, and substernal pain, appropriate symptomatic treatment. (2) tracheal response: cough, mostly dry cough, phlegm less. 4) complications (1) hemorrhage: incidence of about 1%. Should select patients, those with Mingxian ulcers, especially those with burr-like prominence of the deep ulcer, shall take special care to reduce the radiation dose each time, extending the total treatment time, the radiation process, should always be observed X-ray barium meal . (2) perforation: incidence rate is about 3%, which may penetrate the trachea, esophageal fistula formation or penetration mediastinum, causing mediastinal inflammation. (3) radiation myelopathy: spinal cord disease is radiation head, neck, chest, severe complications of cancer radiotherapy is one. The incubation period after irradiation more than 1 to 2 years.

Third, Chinese medicine treatment of esophageal cancer

TCM believes that the fundamental pathogenesis of esophageal cancer as yang weakness, body function decline, the main strength treatment should yang qi, strengthening the body, improve body function, so treatment should reflect the main square principles of Chinese medicine. On esophageal cancer in different sub-license, the legislature has also come to the different drugs. But the government has stored in liver and gas law, Jiangni stasis, Treating Endometriosis, training of the righting, raw body fluid, clearing and detoxifying, anti-cancer pain, yang qi and so on. (A) proprietary cancer treatment should be surgery, chemotherapy and combined therapy. Chinese medicine is a very important part of Chinese patent medicine of which a dose ingredients stability, easy to take advantage of effective and convenient. (B) BRC 1. Qi stagnation, the primary evidence: the performance of early esophageal cancer, no significant dysphagia, only a sense of the esophagus when swallowing block choking, foreign body sensation or burning sensation, chest discomfort and back, depressed sense of Shen tight , when the sink when the hidden sense of swallowing negative. X-rays are mainly early esophageal cancer lesions. Light dark tongue, thin white tongue coating, wiry pulse. Therapeutic: Liver qi, yang qi, Fuzhengyiliu. 2. Terrier choke Principal Certificate: When a simple, mild adverse stem choking or swallowing. X-rays are mostly early and mid-medullary type, fungating esophageal cancer. Tongue is dark blue, yellow and white fur, thin pulse string. Governing Law: cancer Sanjie, Jiangni qi, yang righting. 3. Yin Yang withered master card bad: sick of late, dysphagia, close to obstruction, Oue gas counter, emaciation, shortness of breath, fatigue, vexed hot, dry lips, dry stool, such as dung, tongue dark Jiang, thin and small, less lack subsidized or no moss moss, moss and black, also dry and crack those small weak pulse breakdown or Shen. Governing Law: AIDS yin and invigorating, BNI. After years of painstaking research and clinical trials, co-developed the series of effects of pure anti-cancer medicine. A "trinity of therapy," the main treatment esophageal, gastric cardia, gastric cancer caused by choking on food down food, phlegm constantly, into food that is spit, food regurgitation, dysphagia, weight loss, hoarseness, chest tightness, fatigue, pain reflex lesions various symptoms have good results.

Esophageal cancer - esophageal cancer nursing

A, preoperative care

1. Psychological care of patients with progressive dysphagia, increased weight loss, poor tolerance of the procedure, lack of confidence in treatment, while there is a degree of surgery fear. Therefore, should address the patient's mental state to explain, to comfort and encourage the establishment of fully trusted by the nursing patient relationship, in which patients Renshi to surgery, a complete treatment, it Leyu surgery. 2. To strengthen nutrition still capable of consuming them, should be given high-calorie, high protein, high vitamin liquid or semi-liquid diet. Can not eat, shall intravenous hydration, electrolytes and calories. Hypoproteinemia patients should be given to correct blood or plasma proteins. 3. ① gastrointestinal oral hygiene preparations; ② preoperative placement stomach and duodenal drip tube; ③ preoperative fasting, those who have food retention, intraoperative transesophageal night before washing with isotonic saline, help reduce edema, postoperative infection and reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage; ④ were scheduled for colon esophagus, preoperative care shall colon surgery preparation, see colorectal cancer preoperative preparation. 4. Preoperative patients with deep breathing exercises Church, effective cough, expectoration, defecation and other activities in bed.



Second, postoperative care

In addition to observation of vital signs and other routine care, should be: 1. To maintain smooth operation for gastrointestinal decompression tube drainage of 24 ~ 48h a small amount of blood, should be regarded as normal, such as a large number of blood leads to medical treatment should be immediately reported. Gastrointestinal decompression tube should be retained in 3 to 5 days to reduce anastomotic tension to facilitate healing. Note tube connecting accurate, stable fixation, to prevent the prolapse, the drainage was adequate.

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer




Abstract correcting edit summary

Cancer is a common gastrointestinal malignancy in the incidence of stomach and esophageal cancer is second only to the most common part of colon cancer (60% or so) most genes in 40 patients over the age of 30 years of age account for about 15% of men See more male to female ratio 2-3:1, cancer is a lifestyle disease. Currently, it has been ranked second in the list of cancer, so diet, lifestyle is the root of cancer.



Cancer

Cancer is a common gastrointestinal malignancy in the incidence of stomach and esophageal cancer is second only to the most common part of colon cancer (60% or so) most genes in 40 patients over the age of 30 years of age account for about 15% of men See more male to female ratio 2-3:1, cancer is a lifestyle disease. Currently, it has been ranked second in the list of cancer, so diet, lifestyle is the root of cancer.

Cancer - causes

Cancer knowledge

To the current date is still not very clear, but most of that food or heredity. The past ten years, all aspects of the study show that intake of acidic foods is the culprit for cancer, cancer is the acidic representative. In food, meat, protein, fat intake increased a lot, colorectal significant increase, 30 teenage cancer patients get quite a few.

(1) based on clinical and epidemiological investigation is generally believed that with the following aspects:

1, diet (acidic foods and alkaline foods): cancer patients is a typical acidic, there is precisely the origin of acidic body is excessive intake of acidic foods or habits of the error. Cancer is a typical hi acidic cells. The formation of acidic normal cell cancerous, is already double the growth of cancer cells forming. And epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of colorectal cancer and the economic situation, there is a clear link diet. Economically developed areas, animal fat and protein diet in the proportion of high cellulose content and low incidence of regional and group significantly higher. Diet and the relationship between colorectal cancer exact mechanism is not clear in general that may be associated with animal fat metabolism, bacterial decomposition products and low-fiber diet as a state, slowing peristalsis, intestinal absorption of toxins increase and other factors.

2, colon polyps: Colon polyps can be divided into adenomatous polyps, hyperplastic polyp, inflammatory polyp, and hamartomatous polyps. According to the histological structure of polyps adenomatous polyps and villous polyps can be divided into tubular polyps; according to the number of colon polyps and Heredity, adenomatous polyps can be divided into single, multiple, and family history of polyposis.

3, colorectal chronic inflammation: acidic causing chronic ulcerative colitis, chronic schistosomiasis, granuloma formation etc. and the incidence of colorectal cancer are directly related. The longer the duration, the higher the possibility of occurrence of colorectal cancer, illness of more than 20 years of ulcerative colitis patients with colorectal cancer occur in approximately 20-40%.

4, genetic factors: in addition to familial polyposis or ulcerative colitis induced malignant transformation of colorectal cancer patients and patients with colorectal cancer in the other, about 5-10% of patients had significant family history of cancer, collectively known as Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer family (HereditaryNonpolyposisColorectalCancer, HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome. Specific performance:

(1) there are three or more family members with colorectal cancer, in which two or more of the same generation;

(2) at least two generations per capita have a similar disease;

(3) at least one in 50 colorectal cancer diagnosed before the age.

In short, the formation of colon cancer is caused by many factors, the most critical is the acidification of body fluids, to the growth of cancer cells to create a good living space. All the external factors, mainly through bodily fluids acidification work, so acidic body is the real culprit cancer.

Cancer - clinical manifestations

(A) change of bowel habits, bloody stool, blood and pus, tenesmus, constipation, diarrhea, etc.

(B) tapered stool bowel obstruction in late, there were thin and even cachexia

(C) of the digital rectal examination: diagnosis of cancer is Shuodao the steps necessary to check about 80% of the cancer patient when the doctor can be naturally found in digital rectal examination was graduated reach of uneven quality hard mass; late to reach the narrow lumen mass fixed finger see dirty with feces of sepsis

(D) rectum microscopy: can glimpse the shape of parts of the tumor size and directly involved in tissue obtained for pathologic examination

Rectal cancer - diagnosis is based on

(A) and nature of change in bowel habits

(2) microscopic examination digital rectal examination and rectal well-known quality found in the rectum hard irregular mass of tissue in-depth review confirm the disease

Eat good food prevent cancer, has the potential to decrease the incidence of cancer itching 30% -60%. Daily diet, including fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods and other basic foods is essential, is very important.

Cancer - Treatment

1, surgical treatment: surgery is the most direct patients to choose the most, but too few people to adapt to surgical treatment.

2, addition of local non-surgical treatment: including direct electrocautery in liquid nitrogen, etc.

3, radiation therapy

4, chemotherapy

5, immunotherapy: 80 years since the 20th century, led by the United States and Japan, scientists Maitake (Maitake, also known as Grifola frondosa) research has made breakthroughs in cancer patients to bring a new treatment, achieve a more satisfactory results. Maitake contains to β-(1-6) combined with the main chain of β-(1-3) combined with the side chain of the glucan and to β-(1-3) combined with the main chain of β-(1-6 ) glucan binding activity for the side chain, experiments prove that the activity of glucan by activation of immune function and inhibit tumor growth; also found that the activity of purified glucan can be markedly only by injection, and Maitake D- fraction (activity of a combination of glucan and protein) can be obtained by oral administration of the desired results. Maitake D-fraction both the chemical structure and composition or molecular weight are different from the mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, mushroom extracts and other similar substances, the biological activity of these same substances are also unmatched.

Animal experiments and clinical trials show that Maitake D-fraction is played by the following aspects to the role of anti-cancer:

1, activation of phagocytic cells, natural killer cells, T cells and other harmful immune cells, induction of leukocyte factors, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and other cytokines.

2, induction of apoptosis.

3, with traditional chemotherapy drugs (mitomycin, Kamosiding, etc.) combined, can increase efficacy, but also reduce side effects during chemotherapy.

4, and immune therapy (interferon-α2b) a synergistic effect.

5, reduce pain in patients with advanced cancer, increase appetite, improve patient quality of life.

U.S. health food company Mike is the first system Maitake authority enterprises, the drops produced by Maitake refined to improve the quality of life of cancer patients can play very good.

References: http://www.maitake.com.cn

Cancer - Prevention

Direct physical exercise

The results show that:

① cancer can not be formed in weak alkaline body;

② cancer only in the formation of acid in the body;

③ If you have cancer, indicating the body is acidic;

④ cancer can only be extended in an acidic body;

⑤ If your body is weak alkaline, cancer can not be extended;

⑥ If you can balance the PH value of your body, let your body into weak alkaline, no matter what you have to have change and be cured of cancer;

⑦ no matter how bad your situation, even if only live 6 months, if you can change your body into weak alkaline PH value, you will not be extended to cancer, will be good;

⑧ Do not worry your family, your mom, dad or anyone else has cancer, as long as your body is alkaline, you will not have to, if you already have, it will change;

⑨ are acidic body fluids of cancer survival, nothing else. If your body is acidic, you will get cancer. If it is weak base, and you will not get cancer. If you already have cancer, as long as you can adjust your body's PH value to weak alkaline, cancer will leave you.

Cancer prevention tips are very simple things as basic food in order to prevent the accumulation of acid waste, because the acidification of the fluid environment is fertile ground for normal cell cancerous, adjust the pH balance of body fluids is an effective way to prevent cancer.

A) to develop good habits, smoking cessation alcohol limit. Smoking, the World Health Organization predicts that if people are not smoking, five years later, the world's cancer will be reduced 1 / 3; Second, do not drink. Tobacco and alcohol are very acid acid, long-term smokers who drink, easily lead to acidic.

B) Do not eat too much salty and spicy food, do not eat heat, cold, late and bad food; frail or have a disease genes are appropriate to eat a number of anti-cancer foods and high alkali content alkaline food, maintain a good mental state.

C) have a good mentality to cope with stress, work and rest, do not fatigue. Shows that pressure is an important incentive cancer, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that stress caused by fatigue physically weak and thus lead to decreased immune function, endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders, resulting in the deposition of acid substances; pressure can lead to stagnation of qi and blood stasis caused by mental stress, toxic fire retraction so.

D) to enhance physical activity, physical fitness, sports and more in the sun, sweating more acid the body can be excreted with the sweat and avoid the formation of acidic.

E) to the law of life, habits are not regular people, such as through the night singing karaoke OK, play mahjong, night out and other living without law, will increase the acidic, prone to cancer. Should develop good habits to maintain alkaline body, so far from various types of cancer diseases.

F) not to eat contaminated food, such as contaminated water, crops, poultry, fish balls, moldy food, eat green organic food, to prevent the disease from the mouth.

Colorectal cancer - acid foods

Fruits and vegetables

1. Strongly acidic foods: egg yolk, cheese, white sugar or persimmon, mullet roe, dried cod.

2. In the acidic food: ham, bacon, chicken, tuna fish, pork, eel, beef, bread, wheat, butter, horse meat

And so on.

3. Weak acid food: rice, peanut, beer, wine, fried tofu, seaweed, clams, octopus, loach.

4. Weak alkaline food: red beans, carrots, apples, cabbage, onions, tofu.

5. In the basic food: dried radish, beans, carrots, tomatoes, bananas, oranges, pumpkin, strawberry, protein, prunes, lemons, spinach.

6. Strongly alkaline food: Qiama old, grapes, tea, kelp buds, kelp, lemon.

Cancer - Diet therapy

恰玛 ancient

The best choice for therapeutic treatment as the main ingredient is Qiama old.

Qiama ancient Uighurs in Xinjiang more than 2,000 eating a food, Qiama ancient records in the pharmacopoeia are lung, relieving cough and lung diseases is very good, it is the only cancer worldwide effective food Qiama contained elements of ancient plants that can not be achieved by experts as the "longevity fruit holy", implying, Qiama old is the only hope for cancer patients, the real life-saving straw.

Needs special attention is that after patients took Qiama old, had some time to have a strong detoxification reaction, the product of human waste out of the body of those. These circumstances, do not be afraid, all is normal.

【Product Name】 longevity of ancient holy fruit Qiama

The main components Qiama ancient

The product formula confidential details, the main ingredients of the ancient Qiama

【Properties】 warm

】 【Role and mechanism

Qiama ancient organic-rich active alkali plant, quickly absorbed by the body. Qiama old can also add elements of the human body needs to supplement the body needs protein, flavonoids, saponins on cancer cells are inhibited linoleic acid.

【Functions and Indications】

This product is applicable to various types of diabetes and cancer, rectal cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, bile duct cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, various types of small cell carcinoma, lung cancer, skin cancer, bladder cancer , various types of cancer, leukemia, etc., on the high white blood cell leukemia and transfer to the bone effects of various types of advanced cancer significantly.

【Notes】

Avoid fasting, ban spicy, alcohol; to maintain emotional stability, to avoid lit. Some patients taking increased after defecation is a normal symptom, usually resume within a week; some cancer patients after taking Tuisuan, fatigue and other conditions, is a sign of illness from the effects; the taking of individual patients, the feeling of stomach discomfort, can be properly reduced volume.

Hepatic carcinoma

Hepatic carcinoma

Abstract correcting edit summary
Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer) is the mortality rate after gastric cancer, esophageal cancer the third most common cancer, early symptoms and signs, advanced mainly for the liver pain, fatigue, weight loss, jaundice, ascites and other symptoms. Western medicine generally adopted in clinical surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicine treatment, but patients with advanced low cure rate for cancer spread, so to achieve early detection of liver cancer, early diagnosis and early treatment. Do liver cancer prevention, adherence to the "water management, food management, anti-hepatitis" The seven-liver cancer prevention policy.

Liver Cancer - Overview
Hepatic carcinoma
Common malignant liver tumors. Early symptoms and signs are not obvious or the lack of specificity, and some had performed liver area pain onset, and some show acute abdominal pain, or metastasis of the first symptoms show. In addition to the clinical manifestations diagnosis, the still need to rely on liver function tests, a special enzyme inspection, in addition to biopsy, the order of AFP (AFP) the highest rate of correct diagnosis. Treated by surgery and treatment of TCM and Western medicine, the survival rate of liver cancer increased. Liver cancer mortality rate was 10.09/10 million people in China. Cancer in men accounts for the first three, women accounted for in the first four. Incidence of primary liver cancer in China than in Europe and the United States 5 to 10 times higher. Recent epidemiological survey in China, early diagnosis, early surgical resection such as significant progress, the importance attached by the international medical community.
Epidemiological survey on the performance of liver cancer in China the highest incidence in the southeast coast, including Qidong County, Jiangsu Province average annual incidence rate of 55.63/10 million, mortality rate 47.93/10 million. Fusui, Guangxi, Guangdong Shunde, Hunan, Sichuan, liver cancer mortality rate ranks first in the cause of death.
Liver cancer incidence around the world to sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, coastal areas have a higher prevalence, Europe, the United States is lower. Greater than 5 / 10 people who are Mozambique, South Africa, Nigeria, Singapore, Uganda; up to 3.1 ~ 5 / 10, people who are in Japan, Denmark; less than 3 / 10, people who are in Europe, America, Australia, northern India areas. This disease can occur in infants 2 months to 80 years old, up to age of onset is 40 to 49 years. Male hair, male to female ratio of 6:1.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Causes
Hepatic carcinoma
The real cause has not yet fully understood. Present study shows that liver cancer and the following factors.
(A) viral hepatitis in China, chronic viral hepatitis is hepatocellular carcinoma in the main causes of many risk factors. Observed that: Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cancer incidence closely related. Such as the high incidence area in Jiangsu Qidong County, its natural population of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive rate was 24.8%, far higher than 6% of the region. Hepatitis and liver cancer in patients with HBsAg-positive ratio of 2.66%, while only 1.39% were HBsAg negative. Hepatitis B and cirrhosis in patients with liver cancer incidence rate 9-10 times higher than the general population, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy studies have shown that liver cirrhosis tissues around the existence of a HBsAg (70 ~ 88%) . HCC can also be found in HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). Hybridization showed that hepatitis B virus DNA and human liver cells and liver cancer cells with integrated DNA, but DNA integration of the significance of the occurrence of liver cancer to be studied.
(B) cirrhosis
In China, hepatocellular carcinoma in viral cirrhosis mainly based on the place; in western countries, often in alcoholic liver cirrhosis based on the place.
(C) aflatoxin
Animal tests showed that aflatoxin is a strong carcinogen. Guangxi Fusui survey showed that food (corn, peanut, etc.) and mold aflatoxin contamination was positively correlated with the occurrence of liver cancer. In Qidong county corn containing aflatoxin B fed duck, can induce liver cancer.
(D) drinking water
(E) genetic factors
(6) Other
Nitrosamines, organochlorine pesticides, such as dual nitrogen mustard class of cancer-causing factors are worthy of attention. China branch sinensis stimulate the bile duct epithelium, but also can produce bile duct cell carcinoma.
Now generally believed that chronic hepatitis B virus persistent infection is liver cancer and contributes to the carcinogen aflatoxin and other sensitive, in small doses can induce cancer.
Liver cancer - Pathology
Generally divided into: ① block type. More than 5cm in diameter; ② bulky. More than 10cm in diameter, either mono block, block multi-block harmony, accounting for 77.8%. ③ nodules. 5cm in diameter, these nodules can have multiple nodules, accounting for 18.8% ④ dispersed diffuse nodules, accounting for 1.45%. ⑤ small cancer type. Refers to a single nodule less than 3cm, accounting for 1.93%. Histological type most common type of liver cells, about 90%; bile duct cell-type rare; mixed that these two types exist, is even more rare.
Liver cancer - histological type
Hepatic carcinoma
Liver cancer can occur by tissue into hepatocellular carcinoma, bile duct carcinoma, mixed hepatocellular three categories.
(1) hepatocellular carcinoma: cancer cells originated from hepatocytes. Differentiation is better, similar to liver cancer cells were poorly differentiated cancer cells heteromorphism, polygon, rich in cytoplasm, granular, eosinophilic stained clear, and sometimes shows a small drop of bile, a large deeply stained nuclei, showing that multiple nuclei and cells arranged in cords or nests, during which blood Doufeng Fu, no other interstitial. The most common type, accounting for 80% of liver cancer to 90%.
(2) bile duct carcinoma: originated in intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells. Its organizational structure, or more simply as adenocarcinoma cancer. Cells small, clear and transparent cytoplasm, the cytoplasm of non-bile, the formation of large and small glandular, stromal little more than the sinusoid. This relatively rare type.
(3) mixed type of liver cancer: hepatocellular carcinoma existing structure there cholangiocarcinoma. The least common type. In addition, in recent years has found that some rare types of cancer, such as clear cell type, giant cell type, hard type, fiber-like layer-type. These types of liver cancer prognosis are good.
Liver cancer - the naked eye typing
Hepatic carcinoma
The naked eye can be divided into 3 types:
(1) massive type: cancer was a large block, but was more than a single block can block, or block the majority of nodules integration; mass more than 5cm in diameter, such as greater than 10cm will be bulky. Aikuai soft texture, the center often hemorrhage and necrosis, cancer often scattered around the satellite-like nodules. The more common type in right liver lobe, accounting for more than 78% of liver cancer, suitable for chemoembolization, satellite lesions has not yet appeared early liver cancer may consider surgery.
(2) Multi-nodular: A majority is dispersed in the right lobe of liver nodules and liver left lobe in diameter from a few millimeters to a few centimeters to 3 ~ 5cm for multiple. Nodules and the surrounding boundaries unclear, nodules under the capsule surface elevation to the liver to the uneven surface. This type accounts for about 20%, due to more nodes, surgery is not easy to eradicate, to do a hepatic artery embolization.
(3) diffuse: for the most size from rice to soybean nodules dispersed in the whole liver, pale, hard, hard to the naked eye with the proliferation of fake leafed. This type is less common, accounting for less than 2%, not suitable for chemotherapy, surgery can be considered such as hepatic artery embolization.
Liver cancer - metastasis means
Transfer means:
(1) blood transfer, the earliest and most common; mainly through blood circulation, the first transfer in the liver, causing multiple metastases. Portal vein tumor thrombus may be occurring. Extrahepatic metastasis, the main switch to the lung, followed by the adrenal gland, bone, kidney and brain.
(2) lymphatic metastasis in the liver portal lymph nodes, lymphatic metastasis to the liver and nearby lymph nodes, distant metastasis to supraclavicular lymph nodes.
(3) cultivation, and a few can cause abdominal or pelvic metastasis.
Liver cancer - clinical manifestations
Hepatic carcinoma
Hiding the disease onset, early lack of typical symptoms. Some early cases, only the AFP test was positive and asymptomatic, and signs, called sub-clinical liver cancer. Advanced liver cancer symptoms are as follows:
1. Liver pain, often isolated and persistent swelling and pain or dull pain, liver pain, liver capsule due to rapid growth of the tumor was caused by traction. If violations of diaphragm disease, pain may involve the right shoulder. When the liver surface nodules rupture and necrosis of cancer tissue and blood into the abdominal cavity, it can suddenly pain, until the whole abdomen from the liver area; produced the performance of acute abdomen, such as hemorrhage, can cause shock and syncope.
2. Hepatomegaly liver enlargement was progressive, hard texture, surface uneven, with nodules, or massive, blunt edge instead of neat, often with different degrees of tenderness. Prominent in the liver under the arch or xiphoid Youlei under, the upper abdomen can present as partial or full uplift, such as cancer in the diaphragm, is mainly for the diaphragm may from time to raise and lower edge of the liver enlargement. Nodules under the costal arch at the most vulnerable to touch. Sometimes vascular tumor suppression, can be heard in the appropriate abdominal area hair-like noise.
3. Jaundice occurs late, usually due to liver cell damage or oppression or violation of due Aikuai near hilar bile duct, or because of loss caused by cancer or blood clots caused by biliary obstruction.
4. Signs of liver cirrhosis associated with portal hypertension may have splenomegaly, ascites, venous collateral circulation, such as performance. Ascites rapidly increased, the general was transudate. (Candidates should keep in mind is the leakage of fluid or more effusion, may be appropriate exudate and transudate review identifying the knowledge points). Have bloody ascites, multiple violations of the liver capsule due to cancer or to cause intra-abdominal rupture.
5. Systemic cancer had progressive weight loss performance, loss of appetite, fever, fatigue, malnutrition and cachexia, a small number of liver cancer, could have a special performance of the body, known as paraneoplastic syndrome. To spontaneous hypoglycemia, polycythemia more common, other rare high blood lipids, high blood calcium, such as carcinoid syndrome. (What is paraneoplastic syndrome, a very important term to explain).
6. Symptoms of liver metastasis blood metastasis early, most of the transfer to the lung, adrenal gland, bone, chest, brain and other parts of the corresponding induced symptoms, switch to move the right side of chest more common, pleural effusion may have imposed.
Liver - the main symptom
Including: ① liver pain. Was dull or sharp pain, intermittent or persistent, can be extended to the right shoulder or right-back casual. If the cancer renewal of subcapsular hemorrhage or rupture, may have severe abdominal pain, weight were associated with shock. ② gastrointestinal symptoms. Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and some obvious. These symptoms often associated with active hepatitis or cirrhosis of the symptoms not easy to tell. ③ symptoms. Fatigue, weight loss, general weakness, cachexia was late. ④ fever. Some liver cancer patients with fever, with tumor necrosis. ⑤ paraneoplastic syndrome. Some because of ectopic liver tissue, or secretion of B cells secreting insulin-stimulating factor, thus resulting in hypoglycemia. A small number of patients can occur polycythemia, multiple blood circulation due to increase in the EPO. Occasional hypercalcemia.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Signs
Hepatic carcinoma
Showed progressive enlargement of the liver, texture hard, uneven surface can be touched nodules. Uneven edges, upper abdominal cancer may be due to the uplift, such as swelling up, make diaphragmatic elevation. Hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma in tortuous, and sometimes blood vessels in the abdominal wall and the noise can be heard. Jaundice occurs more in late, or because of liver cell necrosis caused by cancer or bile duct pressure. Hilar tumor suppression, can be significantly induced jaundice. For human liver cancer associated with cirrhosis, it may have signs of cirrhosis such as ascites, venous collateral circulation, splenomegaly, portal hypertension can lead to esophageal varices. The lung, bone, brain metastases are appropriate when the symptoms. Transfer can occur bloody pleural effusion.
Liver cancer - clinical staging
Can be in three phases: ① period. Were no clinical symptoms and signs; ② period. Symptoms and signs, and the period of between between those; ③ period. There cachexia, jaundice, ascites or distant metastasis. According to research, from there to the low concentration of AFP-positive, since the period to have symptoms of, a serious condition from period to period, and finally to death from the entire course of roughly 10, respectively, 8,4,2 months shows that the natural course of about 24 months, the average duration of the past that the liver was 3 to 6 months is actually a late course of disease.
Symptoms and signs are important, but early detection of subclinical HCC, mainly depends on high-risk population census or survey. High-risk population over 40 years of age, 5 years history of hepatitis or HBsAg-positive blood. China As a result of the census, found that subclinical liver resection 5-year survival rate as high as 72.9%, the entire liver cancer patients overall 5-year survival rate increased to 20.6%.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Diagnosis
Inspection

Hepatic carcinoma
1. Determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) AFP determine the regular observation of the liver disease, recurrence and prognosis of great value. Criteria: ① AFP> 500μg / L for 4 weeks ② AFP gradually increased from low to no down ③ AFP at 200μg / L or more of the middle level for 8 weeks. AFP by RIA, the positive rate of patients with liver cancer about 70%. When the serum concentration of ≥ 500ng/ml, the liver cancer diagnosis can be established basic. If only the low-rise (50ng/ml) or moderately elevated (200ng/ml ±), should be closely monitored to observe the dynamics; if the continued rise in liver cancer patients should be considered; if dropped, you may as hepatitis. Also measured SGPT helpful in the diagnosis, such as SGPT several times higher than normal, chronic active hepatitis more likely; such as AFP and SGPT separation between the two curves, SGPT increased AFP decline, then the liver is very high. Of course, should be combined with other liver function tests, comprehensive observation and analysis, make the diagnosis.
2. Serum enzymes. GGT  Ⅱ (γ  glutamyl peptide isoenzymes Ⅱ) in primary and metastatic liver cancer were 90%.
3. B-type ultrasonic imaging, can show a tumor more than 2cm in diameter. Applications AFP the same time, should be combined with B-ultrasound to check for cancerous lesions, if the disease, and the nature of the difficult to ascertain who can ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration to check for cancer cells. B-type circular lesions found in the local and shall be differentiated from hemangioma or cyst.
4. X ray computer tomography (CT), can display more than 2cm in diameter tumors, such as the combination of hepatic arteriography (CTA) or hepatic artery injection of iodized oil contrast (1ipoidol-CTA), on the following tumor detection rate of 1cm more than 80% in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma and small liver cancer the best way.
5. X-hepatic angiography, selective celiac artery and hepatic artery angiography can show more than 1cm in diameter, nodules, and the positive rate of 87%, combined with AFP, positive results may be used for diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma. DSA (digital subtraction hepatic arteriography) shows the 1.5cm diameter of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Since about 30% of AFP in liver cancer patients can be negative, so in recent years, some new tumor marker studies, including: AIF, γGT isoenzyme, 5 - nucleotide phosphodiesterase, aldolase - A, 1 - antitrypsin and so on. On AFP-positive patients, can also be applied AFP heterogeneity is useful to detect differences as AFP AFP from liver cancer or other pathological conditions arising.

Diagnosis
On the history of middle-aged who have liver disease, especially in male patients with unexplained liver pain, weight loss, progressive hepatomegaly, AFP should be measured and the check. For early diagnosis. Detection of high-risk groups combined with ultrasound imaging examination AFP 1 or 2 times a year is the discovery of the basic measures of early liver cancer. AFP continued to increase but the low concentration of normal transaminases, often sub-clinical liver cancer mainly. The exclusion of active liver disease, pregnancy, embryonic tumors outside, AFP> 500μg / L for 1 month, or AFP> 200μg / L for 8 weeks, can be diagnosed with primary liver cancer. [1]
Liver - differential diagnosis
1. Secondary liver cancer with hepatic mass, slow progression of the disease, mild, AFP test is generally negative, the key to diagnosis and pathological examination of extrahepatic primary cancer to find the evidence.
2. If cirrhosis of liver cirrhosis cases were significantly large, hard of large nodules or liver atrophy and imaging also found lesions, the liver is very likely, repeated checking AFP or AFP heterogeneity, close follow-up condition.
3. Active liver disease liver disease activity was short-term increase of serum AFP, suggesting the possibility of liver cancer, regular follow-up serum AFP and multiple ALT, such as: ① AFP and ALT increased dynamic curve parallel or simultaneous, or ALT continued to increase to normal several times, then the possibility of large active liver disease; ② separation of the two curves, AFP elevated ALT normal or reduced by the high should be more consideration of primary liver cancer.
4. Liver abscess usually obvious clinical manifestations of inflammation, swelling of the liver surface is smooth without nodules, tenderness evident. Elevated white blood cell count. Liver ultrasound examination may not discover the fluid areas. Diagnosis is difficult, it would be to make an ultrasound-guided diagnostic puncture. Can be anti-amebic and anti-bacterial treatment trials.
5. Extrahepatic liver area adjacent retroperitoneal tumor of soft tissue swelling and pain, from the kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas tumor structure, etc. may also be present in the abdominal mass. Ultrasound helps distinguish the location and nature of the tumor, AFP test should be negative, is difficult to distinguish when the diagnosis can only be exploratory.
6. Non-cancerous liver lesions such as hemangioma, polycystic liver, hydatid liver disease and other available radionuclide blood pool CT scan, MRI and ultrasound to help diagnose and sometimes required exploratory laparotomy.
① cancer can not be formed in weak alkaline body;
② cancer only in the formation of acid in the body;
③ If you have cancer, indicating the body is acidic;
④ cancer can only be extended in an acidic body;
⑤ If your body is weak alkaline, cancer can not be extended;
⑥ If you can balance the PH value of your body, let your body into weak alkaline, no matter what you have to have change and be cured of cancer;
⑦ no matter how bad your situation, even if only live 6 months, if you can change your body into weak alkaline PH value, you will not be extended to cancer, will be good;
⑧ Do not worry your family, your mom, dad or anyone else has cancer, as long as your body is alkaline, you will not have to, if you already have, it will change;
⑨ are acidic body fluids of cancer survival, nothing else. If your body is acidic, you will get cancer. If it is weak base, and you will not get cancer. If you already have cancer, as long as you can adjust your body's PH value to weak alkaline, cancer will leave you.
Cancer prevention tips are very simple things as basic food in order to prevent the accumulation of acid waste, because the acidification of the fluid environment is fertile ground for normal cell cancerous, adjust the pH balance of body fluids is an effective way to prevent cancer.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Treatment
1, food therapy for liver cancer
Today, we approach the treatment of cancer by surgery and chemotherapy Why no real cure for cancer, relieve the suffering of patients do, it ultimately was not the real reason is that fluid recovery is acidic, acidic fluid does not change the cancer cell, will not die, This is because of surgery and chemotherapy the cancer metastasis and recurrence of reasons. To the treatment of cancer have to improve their physique from the start, starve cancer cells from the source. Eat more alkaline food, improve their diet is acidic and adding organic nutrients to the body, so as to starve cancer cells in the same time, to restore their immunity.

Second, the pH of common foods
1. Strongly acidic foods: egg yolk, cheese, white sugar or persimmon, mullet roe, dried cod.
2. In the acidic food: ham, bacon, chicken, tuna fish, pork, eel, beef, bread, wheat, butter, horse meat
And so on.
3. Weak acid food: rice, peanut, beer, wine, fried tofu, seaweed, clams, octopus, loach.
4. Weak alkaline food: red beans, carrots, apples, cabbage, onions, tofu.
5. In the basic food: dried radish, beans, carrots, tomatoes, bananas, oranges, pumpkin, strawberry, protein, prunes, lemons, spinach.
6. Strongly alkaline food: Qiama old, grapes, tea, kelp buds, kelp, lemon.
Radical surgery is the primary means of early diagnosis should be to gain an early indication for liver cancer surgery surgery restricted to a leaf or half leaf, without significant jaundice, ascites or metastasis elsewhere. Can do partial resection of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Large blood vessels in the portal area of liver cancer can be room temperature or cold perfusion of hepatic artery occlusion, removal of the no blood. Those that can not be removed can be used as liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, garnet laser therapy or laser surgery technology, to achieve the elimination of most or all of the purpose of cancer because 90% of liver blood supply from the hepatic artery, hepatic artery ligation or it will embolization can achieve the purpose of palliative care. Hepatic artery chemotherapy infusion or vinyl wrapped mitomycin cellulose capsules made of 225m into the hepatic artery, were trial. The above method, utilization, can improve survival rate. Radiation therapy for advanced liver cancer patients can improve symptoms, reduce the cancer and prolong survival. Chemical treatment than surgery and radiation therapy, and simple on the diffuse type of liver cancer is better, and have significantly impaired renal function and liver injury is to the detriment of patients. Chemotherapy drug 5 - fluorouracil, fluorouracil deoxyuridine (FUDR), thiazolyl for the school, MMC, etc.. Adriamycin combination with other chemotherapy drugs, can increase efficiency. Application of traditional Chinese medicine, up to the purpose of vital essence, and chemotherapy, radiotherapy facilities, reduce side effects and increase efficacy.
Surgery is the best way to meet the levy for the operation: ① diagnosed; estimated liver lesions were confined to a leaf or a half, ② well compensated liver function, prothrombin time is not lower than 50%, no significant jaundice , ascites or distant metastasis, ③ heart lung and kidney function well, can tolerate surgery.
Chemoembolization (TAE) for non-surgical method of choice.

Third, traditional Chinese medicine
Liver cancer is common cancer. Clinical manifestations of early onset captain hidden, no obvious symptoms and signs, often through the AFP test or survey which found. Common symptoms are intermittent or persistent liver area pain, upper abdominal distension slowly, loss of appetite, upper abdominal mass was the sexual swelling, systemic symptoms are weight loss, fever, diarrhea, jaundice, complications of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic coma, rupture of the liver nodules and secondary infection.
The disease more than in Chinese medicine as "the liver product," "Pi qi" and "tympanites", "jaundice" and other areas. Chinese medicine that the emotions of depression, poor air machine, catharsis liver failure, so see above abdominal pain and distension, diminished appetite, greasy fur, wiry pulse; Qi stagnation and blood stasis, bloody blocked, over time, so see the ribs are product, pain discomfort, fatigue and weakness, dark black, thin, greasy fur, purple tongue, thready pulse astringent; spleen health wet, damp depression of heat, toxic heat connotation, so see jaundice, fever, teeth bleed at the nose; heave inflation, yellow and greasy tongue coating and a sense of pulse number of the strings.
The principles of Chinese medicine treatment of liver cancer:
(1) of disease in this: located in the liver disease liver cancer patients, but the righteous large wounds, body fluid Kuihao clearly, under the guidance of BRC, the main application of Yin Fu Zheng, must not blindly attack cancer. If constantly attack cancer, ignoring the man of frail, cancer may have deteriorated.
(2) Combined Internal and External: TCM treatment of cancer must be the overall concept, according to the ancients, "Internal and External governance, its management with a" principle of direct effect of drug cult poison attack on anti-cancer lesions, pain and improve the patients quality of life.
(3) defending side: treatment of chronic diseases persist in defending side, patient must have confidence, not major changes prescription medicine that is also famous view.
(4) attention to the Wei Qi: the treatment of chronic diseases, must pay attention to Stomach. Because "there are students Wei Qi, Wei Qi is no failure."
(5) Intensive Care: The first is the spirit of comfort, improve confidence and initiative to play a patient, actively cooperate with the treatment. Food should be easy to digest, nutritious, Gu protect healthy practices, improve immune function, such as eating more fresh mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum, fresh carp, milk, etc. to enhance disease resistance.
Liver Cancer - Immunotherapy
0 since 80 century, led by the United States and Japan, scientists Maitake (Maitake, also known as Grifola frondosa) has made breakthrough research to cancer patients, especially the liver, bringing a new treatment achieved more satisfactory results. Maitake contains to β-(1-6) combined with the main chain of β-(1-3) combined with the side chain of the glucan and to β-(1-3) combined with the main chain of β-(1-6 ) glucan binding activity for the side chain, experiments prove that the activity of glucan by activation of immune function and inhibit tumor growth; also found that the activity of purified glucan can be markedly only by injection, and Maitake D- fraction (activity of a combination of glucan and protein) can be obtained by oral administration of the desired results. Maitake D-fraction both the chemical structure and composition or molecular weight are different from the mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, mushroom extracts and other similar substances, the biological activity of these same substances are also unmatched.
Animal experiments and clinical trials show that Maitake D-fraction is played by the following aspects to the role of anti-cancer:
1, activation of phagocytic cells, natural killer cells, T cells and other harmful immune cells, induction of leukocyte factors, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and other cytokines.
2, induction of apoptosis.
3, with traditional chemotherapy drugs (mitomycin, Kamosiding, etc.) combined, can increase efficacy, but also reduce side effects during chemotherapy.
4, and immune therapy (interferon-α2b) a synergistic effect.
5, reduce pain in patients with advanced cancer, increase appetite, improve patient quality of life.
U.S. health food company Mike is the first system Maitake authoritative health care products company whose production of "Maitake fine drops" to improve the quality of life of cancer patients can play very good.
Liver cancer - therapy
Zhengzhou Wah Hong Chinese Cancer Institute Hospital, Chinese liver cancer treatment centers in the Chinese medicine treatment of liver cancer has made a major breakthrough, the research projects at the national health administration department and the state in support of medical management, as a Chinese medicine capture the focus of research and promotion of liver cancer by the national health administration and national recognition of the importance of the Chinese Medicine Department, have access to scientific and technological progress awards, won several awards at home and abroad, through the clinical application showed efficacy of home and abroad. Xinhua News Agency, CCTV, "People's Daily", "Health News", "Comment", "Dahe," "Henan Business Daily" has done so many times over 100 media reports, has aroused extensive attention. "Trinity therapy" from the overall concept, the implementation of syndrome differentiation, symptomatic administration, both considered local treatment, but also pay attention to the general situation of the treatment, so traditional Chinese medicine, "Trinity therapy" treatment of cancer is much to accomplish in the medical field, epoch-making significance for human health have made an outstanding contribution. "Trinity therapy" break the traditional single "fire with fire," "is false theory", such as extremely one-sided point of view, even beyond the Western surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy three major limitations of conventional therapy, to achieve three major conventional therapy can not be achieved. The treatment without hospitalization, no pain, no evil attack beverages, tonic not love evil, taken orally and by topical, systemic and local, internal organs and meridian points combined, effective, and in killing cancer cells while increasing the body immunity, remove toxin factor regulating cellular environment, stable gene, repair damaged genes, and no recurrence of cancer prognosis, still critically ill patients with advanced rapidly effective. Therefore, the therapy is the most systematic and comprehensive new anti-cancer Chinese medicine theories, new methods, has made a number of rehabilitation of cancer patients.
Liver cancer drugs commonly used traditional Chinese medicine: GanFuLe oral capsule cinobufotalin Chi capsule norcantharidin Tablets Oral Compound Muji particles GanFuLe God Qi Capsule-specific medicines to treat liver cancer, is Codonopsis, turtle shell ( vinegar), re-building, Atractylodes (fried), Astragalus, Citrus and other precious herbs with effects as the main raw material, the use of modern advanced technology refined from special treatment of liver cancer drugs. GanFuLe capsule in inhibiting cancer cell killing has its unique effect, to kill liver cancer cells for the basic treatment, thorough and effective and quick results. Not only with surgery to prevent postoperative complications, recurrence control symptoms, but also with radiotherapy and chemotherapy to reduce side effects, accelerate the rehabilitation of patients. For patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, patients with weak constitution and not suitable for surgery and chemotherapy and so patients taking GanFuLe capsule can still achieve a good therapeutic effect.
Oral cinobufotalin Anhui toad Biochemical Co., Ltd. is a professional production of anti-cancer drugs in clinical observation and testing for many years based on the use of modern technology dried toad skin extract soluble components in the system made oral agent, which contain glucoside and Chinese toad toad sperm has strong anti-tumor effect, after extraction of the modern advanced processing technology, the safety of non-toxic, patients can rest assured take. Cinobufotalin oral cancer has its unique characteristics, to kill cancer cells completely, inhibit tumor angiogenesis, and to the unique advantages of traditional Chinese medicine to improve the immune function, protect the bone marrow, the cancer while protecting the normal function of the body. In addition, oral use cinobufotalin wide for a variety of malignant tumors, especially in the treatment of advanced tumors, with its unique advantages to play the best anti-cancer effect.
Liver Cancer - Liver Cancer Diagnosis
With liver pain, bloating, loss of appetite, fatigue and significant weight loss and other symptoms and liver enlargement, hard texture, surface nodules and other typical sizes of cases is not difficult clinical diagnosis, but often have reached late. Therefore, the history of middle-aged man who has liver disease, especially in male patients, if unexplained liver pain, weight loss, progressive hepatomegaly, shall be determined and choice B-AFP, CT and other examinations for early diagnosis; on high-risk groups, that is, more than 5 years history of hepatitis, HBsAg positive patients aged over 40 stand for liver cancer screening. AFP continued to increase but the low concentration of normal transaminases, often sub-clinical liver cancer mainly. The exclusion of chronic liver disease, pregnancy and embryonic gonad tumor cases, if the serum AFP> 500mg/mL, continued to 1 month can be diagnosed as primary liver cancer. AFP alone (AFP) can not diagnose all of the liver, because there are still 30% to 40% of HCC patients tested negative for AFP. These patients should be over with B, CT etc. check; hepatic artery angiography can be used when necessary or B-guided needle biopsy and other means to confirm the diagnosis.
Liver cancer - liver cancer complications
Liver complications were gastrointestinal bleeding, liver nodules rupture, liver failure, infection, these complications are often the direct cause of death cause liver cancer.
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common serious complication of liver cancer, is the main reason leading to liver cancer mortality. Leading causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding:
(A) of the esophageal varices
Esophageal varices is upper gastrointestinal bleeding in liver cancer caused the main reason. The main mechanism of its occurrence: 80% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis, liver cirrhosis can lead to increased portal pressure, esophageal varices, when the portal vein or hepatic vein obstruction, portal hypertension can be exacerbated, leading to have varicose esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding; liver can increase liver damage, to the aggravation of cirrhosis, leading to increased portal vein high; when the liver lesions at the hepatic portal, the portal vein pressure can also be to portal vein pressure elevation.
(B) of the clotting mechanism
As the normal liver tissue in patients with liver cancer reduction, reduction of liver synthesis of coagulation factors, coagulation mechanisms occurring obstacles. As hypersplenism, increased destruction of platelets and coagulation mechanisms may also occur obstacles. In addition, the tumor thrombus into the blood, very easily lead to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), causing gastrointestinal bleeding.
(C) of the gastrointestinal mucosa erosion
HCC patients with portal hypertension as a common cause of gastrointestinal stasis, edema, erosion, dynamic membrane, causing bleeding.
Rupture of liver nodules
Spontaneous rupture of primary liver cancer is more common serious liver complications, the occurrence rate of 9% -22.6%, compared with acute disease, dangerous disease and poor prognosis, early diagnosis and timely treatment to improve the prognosis of patients Help. Mechanism of spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma is not fully clear. Most scholars think that is a direct violation of the tumor, so that venous outflow channel obstruction, caused by venous hypertension, which led to bleeding and rupture. Generally speaking, probably the following factors: liver cancer was highly malignant and grow rapidly, resulting in tumor relative insufficiency, resulting in center of ischemia, necrosis and liquefaction. If the tumor volume was increased at this time too fast, and tumor capsule can not be extended, can lead to tumor surface ulceration, and bleeding; liver ischemia, necrosis and secondary infection, can cause bleeding; direct violation of intrahepatic tumor blood vessels , leading to blood vessel rupture; portal vein tumor thrombus embolization was, superficial peripheral portion of tumor necrosis nutritional disorder. Ulceration, can cause bleeding. Tumor located in superficial surface of the liver compartment position, vulnerable to external shocks, meager and cancer tumor capsule also constitutes a very weak reason for bleeding.
Many patients with acute abdominal pain. Started mostly upper abdominal pain, sudden accounted for 95%, with the progression of the disease can gradually develop into full belly, and often accompanied with dizziness. A cold sweat. Nausea, vomiting and other performance. Spontaneous rupture of HCC, there is also limited to the upper abdomen by abdominal pain, and mild, this may be in the position of the small superficial liver nodules rupture, less bleeding, bleeding limited to the liver capsule Next, said subcapsular hemorrhage. Most patients have pale, cool extremities, a cold sweat, pulse breakdown, decreased blood pressure. Ruptured abdominal tenderness, as the cancer varies, rupture, bleeding a small amount of persons, abdominal tenderness may be limited to no obvious lesions or tenderness; broken mouth, bleeding and more who have the whole abdominal tenderness, and some patients may have rebound tenderness and abdominal muscles tight, which may be due to rupture of small bile duct, part of the peritoneum caused by stimulation of bile into the abdominal cavity. Larger amount of bleeding can be seen bulging abdomen, abdominal percussion sound was real, mobility voiced positive bowel sounds decreased or disappeared, Blood tests can lower hemoglobin, leukocytes and neutrophils increased. Diagnostic paracentesis in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma rupture of great significance, and often can not wear to the blood coagulation. B-those who are hard of cases diagnosed has an extremely important role, can confirm the diagnosis.
Liver Cancer - leading cause of deaths
Hepatic encephalopathy: hepatic encephalopathy is the performance of end-stage liver cancer, liver cancer is the leading cause of death (approximately 35%). Department of hepatic encephalopathy often serious damage to liver cancer or both lead to liver cirrhosis caused extensive damage. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, infection, hypokalemia, surgical strikes, drainage of ascites and application of inappropriate and damaging a large number of diuretic drugs in the liver is a common trigger of hepatic encephalopathy. Currently only incentive for its prevention and control, lack of effective therapy. Late because of illness, treatment with little success.
The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is not yet clear, a number of factors may be associated with the following:
(A) of ammonia poisoning theory
Under normal circumstances, the formation and removal of ammonia maintain dynamic balance, so that blood ammonia levels remained normal. Severely damaged liver function, blood ammonia levels can be increased. Elevated blood ammonia levels can be increased or ammonia to form (and) lack of ammonia clearance (ornithine cycle disorder) caused.
(B) false neurotransmitter theory
Catecholamines such as norepinephrine and dopamine in the nervous system of normal neurotransmitters, catecholamines in the blood can not normally blood-brain barrier, it must rely on brain catecholamine synthesis of nerve tissue itself. Protein diet with amino acids such as benzene ring of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which by the bacteria in the intestine can be formed off slope of the role of phenylethylamine and tyramine, such biogenic amines by intestinal absorption from the portal vein were liver.
(C) the plasma amino acid imbalance theory
Under normal circumstances, plasma levels of various amino acids to maintain a more appropriate proportion. AAA (aromatic amino acid) poured into the cell, so that generated more false neurotransmitter and inhibited the synthesis of neurotransmitters, leading to the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. Plasma amino acid imbalance theory is a false neurotransmitter theory of complementary and development.
Bloody hydrothorax and liver damage in patients with severe liver function because, albumin synthesis decreased, together with portal hypertension can often lead to ascites; when planted into the peritoneal tumor cells, may also produce ascites, this time more to bloody ascites; close to the diaphragm rupture of HCC nodules, may also make into a bloody ascites; near the diaphragm direct invasion of liver cancer and pleural transverse depression, can cause bloody pleural effusion; tumor metastasis to the pleura, can cause bloody pleural effusion.
As the lower the resistance of liver cancer patients can often infection. The main sites of infection of respiratory, intestinal, biliary and abdominal cavity. Symptoms of infection due to different forms in different parts, such as respiratory infections, mainly manifested as cough, shortness of breath, fever; intestinal infection mainly as abdominal pain, diarrhea; abdominal infection may have abdominal pain and fever. Infections caused by bacteria, fungal infections are not uncommon.
Cancer patients with fever is more common in the liver, mostly sustained low to moderate heat. Cancer fever is mainly due to liver necrosis after the release of pyrogens into the blood circulation caused. Patients with cancer and fever and infection-induced fever should be differentiated from the former antibiotic treatment fails and there is no other significant addition to fever symptoms, the patient responded well to the antipyretic and analgesic.
Hepatocellular carcinoma - liver cirrhosis
Many patients with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with cirrhosis, decompensated liver cirrhosis at the time, often suddenly or gradually occurs little or no urine, azotemia and other functional renal failure in the performance of the device at a time when the kidney does not mass lesions, described as hepatorenal syndrome (renal failure or liver, HRS majority of these patients were progressive deepening jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, hypoalbuminemia and refractory ascites liver failure performance, disease is characterized by the end of deep coma, severe oliguria, and decreased blood pressure.
(A) increased renal sympathetic tone
Severely impaired liver function in the case, the following factors can increase renal sympathetic tone: ① low blood volume; ② visceral hemodynamics;
(B) of the renin-angiotensin system activity increased in a
Liver dysfunction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, in general, significantly increased the renin-angiotensin, leading to renal vasoconstriction.
(C) of the kallikrein kinin system activity of a serious liver abnormalities in patients with plasma kallikrein and bradykinin in the reduction, while increased activity of plasma renin and angiotensin. These combined changes result in vasodilator and vasoconstrictor activity decreased activity increased, resulting in renal vasoconstriction.
(D) lack of prostaglandin
(E) endotoxemia
(Vi) accumulation of false neurotransmitters
In short, hepatic failure, renal vasoconstriction occurred factors can be categorized into two categories: one is generated when the liver function was impaired, or damaged liver can not be removed from the cycle of toxic substances such as endotoxin and false neurotransmitters, etc.; the other is a low blood volume and portal hypertension caused by reduced effective circulating blood volume. Clinical manifestations: liver and kidney deficiency syndrome in patients with hypoproteinemia addition, portal hypertension, ascites and jaundice and other large state of liver function under all of the clinical manifestations, but also with renal failure to present a provisional clinical manifestations of renal failure depends on the priority of the onset, acute onset, could suddenly oliguria, anuria, azotemia, etc., the condition deteriorated in a short time. Once patients with hepatocellular carcinoma syndrome, its prognosis is poor.
Liver cancer - early prevention
Early symptoms of liver cancer: Based on epidemiological surveys, approximately 90% of liver cancer and hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive, "two pairs of half" positive, hepatitis C antibody positive are a sign of hepatitis virus infection.
Preventive Measures: over the age of 35 hepatitis B surface antigen positive, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis in 5 years, three generations of relatives who have a family history of liver cancer testing every six months followed by B-fetoprotein and liver, is the early detection of liver cancer the most effective way.
In addition, the injection of hepatitis B vaccine; transfusion of blood products is not guaranteed hepatitis virus infection. Alcohol is a major cause of liver cancer the enemy, so to prevent liver cancer should be drinking.
Certain substances in the diet can prevent cancer, cancer, and some carcinogenic substances in another tumor promotion, so good eating habits is very important to offer you the following note:
1, regular diet, quantitative, Eat small meals often more appropriate to the digestive tract cancer patients.
2, eat more vitamin A, C, E foods, eat more green vegetables and fruits.
3, eat with can inhibit the carcinogenic effects of food, such as Kohlrabi, cabbage, carrots, rape, garlic, vegetable oil and fish.
4, do not eat salted, smoked, grilled and fried food, especially burned the coking of the token.
5, insist low-fat diet, eat more lean meat, eggs and yogurt.
6, food should be kept fresh, do not eat moldy food and drink.
7, determined to get rid of harmful alcohol addiction.
8, to maintain smooth stool, constipation, patients should eat foods rich in fiber and drank some honey.
9, eat coarse grains, such as Cumi, corn, whole cereals, eat white rice, refined surface.
10, eat nutritious foods dried fruit seeds such as sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, pumpkin seeds, watermelon seeds, peanuts, walnuts, dried apricots, almonds, raisins, etc.. [2]
Liver cancer - after the problem
Liver cancer recurrence after surgery will it?
High recurrence rate after liver resection. Liver Cancer Institute, Shanghai Medical University, according to the information in the past with large hepatocellular carcinoma after curative resection 5-year recurrence rate was 61.5%, also up 43.5% of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent analysis of 308 cases of positive preoperative fetoprotein, liver returned to normal after resection of AFP cases (radical resection is more reliable), the l, 3,5,10-year recurrence rates were 9.2% 38.8%, 54.1%, 85.0%. Recurrence rate of liver cancer 3 years ago as the highest, generally after 2 years of high incidence.
Recurrence of liver cancer is the leading cause of death after resection of late. Recurrence is common in the liver, a small number of lung, bone and other parts of the transfer. Recent (1 to 2 years) more than the original liver tumor recurrence intrahepatic metastasis, long-term (2 to 4 years) intrahepatic recurrence of the number of those multi-center place. Recurrence according to different types take different treatment strategies, such as a single center, consider re-excision; the case of multi-center, intervention and comprehensive treatment should be taken.

Liver cancer genetic?
Since the possibility of liver cancer have a family history, resulting in many people think that there is genetic liver cancer. So there is no hereditary liver cancer in the end it? Cancer is the external cause of 90% of the genetic etiology of the tumor weight in a very small percentage. Apart from the evolution of multiple polyps from the colon, dry skin color of the skin cancer patients turned into substandard, many other cancers and genetic factors are considered no clear relationship. For those few people at the same time or before or troubles liver cancer families, living conditions may be common, such as a common contact with a carcinogen, the same diet will lead to people suffering from liver cancer, liver cancer which is the genetic little to do with sex.
In general, the liver is not based on the genetic reason why a family tendency, we can consider the following aspects:
1, the horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus: hepatitis patients is extremely close contact with family members, if an infection of hepatitis B virus, it is easy to unwittingly bring disaster to others. This situation also shows that liver cancer can not be attributed to liver cancer family genetic tendency.
2, the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus: hepatitis B virus infection and subjected to a long-term virus carriers of the mother, in childbirth or after delivery may transmit the virus to newborns. As the neonatal immune function is not fully developed, can not effectively clear the virus and the formation of persistent infection, so as to cause chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and finally evolved into the liver, this situation often be mistaken for liver cancer genetic.
3, between the family eating habits, lifestyle, etc. are basically the same, all chance of contact with carcinogenic factors are almost equal, will result in more than one person simultaneously or successively for liver cancer.
In conclusion, liver cancer genetic argument is not established, experts recommend: liver cancer patients at home have a friend do the best prevention of liver cancer, or more than a change of home environment, eating habits, etc., to prevent liver cancer happening again.
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